Important Update for Willis Bass of Granville County

One of the most common mistakes found in genealogical research is conflating multiple people into a single person. In an earlier blog post about my 5th great-grandfather Sherwood Harris (son of Edward Harris and Sarah Chavis), I discussed how even the War Department conflated the records of multiple men who shared the same name: Sherwood Harris. So it is understandable that in Paul Heinegg’s massive research on all “free colored people” from colonial times in the American South, he would likely commit a few of these mistakes.

One such error comes from Heinegg’s discussion about a man named Willis Bass (b. 1792). (Heinegg suggests his birthdate is 1787 but I have records which indicate 1792). By carefully reviewing the records that Heinegg provided and finding additional records to corroborate my suspicions, I am able to update and correct important info on Willis Bass. If you are a descendant of Willis Bass or just researching him, you will definitely want to update your records after reading this blog post. Most researchers use Heinegg’s material so hopefully he will update his website with this new info that I have provided.

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Family tree for Willis Bass that explains his family relationships. Records for all these individuals will be discussed below. © Kianga Lucas

 

Heingg’s Research on Willis Bass (b. 1792)

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Paul Heinegg’s section on James Bass who he proposes is the father of Willis Bass (b. 1792) of Granville Co. Note how there is not a single record of James Bass ever living in Granville Co or even North Carolina. Source: http://freeafricanamericans.com/bailey-berry.htm

James Bass (b. 1760) is who Heinegg suggests is the father of Willis Bass (b. 1792) of Granville County. Heinegg included a number of very helpful primary source documents for James Bass. We see he lived in Norfolk Co, VA for most of his life and later moved out to Tennessee where he filed a Revolutionary War pension application. What you do not see is a single record of James Bass in Granville Co, NC. Children do certainly move away from their parents at some point but to not have a single record for James Bass in Granville Co should immediately throw up some red flags. Let’s take a closer examination of the records.

We see that in the 1801 tax list for Norfolk Co, VA James Bass is listed with the names of members of his household. Included in his houshold is a Willis Bass, which is solid proof that James Bass had a son named Willis Bass. This tax list is the only record provided for the Willis Bass of Norfolk Co, VA. I do find James Bass in the Bedford Co, TN census records starting in 1820 and he is there along with several other “free colored” Bass head of households. These are most likely James Bass’ children and other close family members. If his son Willis Bass survived childhood and did move away from Norfolk Co, VA, he likely would have relocated with his family to Bedford Co, TN. So the Willis Bass of Norfolk, VA coming to Granville Co, NC just doesn’t make much sense or fit into the general trend for James Bass’ family. Let’s look at the records available for the Willis Bass of Granville Co.


 

Willis Bass (b. 1792) Apprenticeship Records

The earliest records that I found for Willis Bass are not included in Heinegg’s research. Ancestry recently made available to their members, Wills and Probate Records for North Carolina and included in the Granville County folder are also apprenticeship records. These records have been an incredible aide for me to verify or disprove genealogical relationships.

Willis Bass John Irby apprenticeship
Willis Bass, age 9 years, was bound out to John Irby on 8 May 1801 in Granville County. Source: North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998

On 8 May 1801, Willis Bass, age 9 years, was bound out to John Irby. On the exact same day, Racey Bass, age 11 years, was also bound out to John Irby. John Irby (1780-1841) was a resident of the Abrams Plains district of Granville County. This is an important detail because Willis Bass and Racey Bass are later shown living in the Abrams Plains District after their indentured servitude was over.

Racey Bass John Irby apprenticeship
Racey (“Rasey”) Bass, age 11 years, was bound out to John Irby on 8 May 1801 in Granville County. Source: North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998

The fact that Willis Bass and Racey Bass were bound out on the same day to the same person is strong evidence that they were siblings. Often times the courts would send out orders requesting that the children of a specific individual, be required to report to court to be bound out. But who were Willis and Racey’s parents? The Granville County court minutes, reveal that a few years earlier in May 1798, Racey Bass, was called the son of Milly Bass who was the wife of Pearson Hawley. The identified gender of Racey Bass is odd because the 1801 apprenticeship order to be bound to John Irby, identified Racey Bass as a female. For the time being I will continue to refer to Racey Bass as a female.

Racey Bass 1798 Court Minutes
Racey “Raisey” Bass, age about 8 years, is called the son of Milly Bass, wife of Pearson Hawley in the May 1798 Court Minutes. Racey was ordered to be bound to James H. Smith. Source: Dr. Warren Milteer

So who was Milly Bass? According to the court minutes, Milly Bass (b. 1772) was the wife of a Pearson Hawley (b. 1770). This means that Willis Bass and Racey Bass were born to Milly Bass before she married Pearson Hawley. And this explains why Willis Bass and Racey Bass were bound out because it was common for children born out of wedlock to be apprenticed out. Pearson is found in the Granville Co records beginning in 1791 and is in the 1800 census, head of a household of 5 “free colored” people. He is from the Saponi/Catawba Indian Hawley family that I previously blogged about here. The 1800 census is the last time I find Pearson Hawley in the Granville records, so I’m unsure of what later happened to him or his wife Milly Bass.

Milly Bass (b. 1772) was the apparent daughter of Benjamin Bass (1722-1802) and his wife Mary (maiden name not known). The Granville County bastardy bonds show that Milly Bass had children out of wedlock and that it was Jesse Chavis (1766-1840) who fathered those children. After making this blog post I made additional discoveries that you can read here, which reviews the evidence that supports Jesse Chavis being the father of Milly Bass’ children.

On 5 Aug 1803, Willis Bass and Racey Bass were bound out again to John Irby. I’m not sure why multiple apprenticeship orders were needed but it shows the pattern of siblings being bound out on the same date.


 

Willis Bass (b. 1792) in the Granville Co Census and Marriage Records

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This is Paul Heinegg’s discussion of Willis Bass (b. 1792). He jumps right into the Granville Co records without offering any evidence or insight as to why the Willis Bass of Granville Co was the same person as Willis Bass of Norfolk Co, VA. Heinegg includes the word “perhaps” to illustrate that he is not sure. All researchers need to pay close attention to these details. Source: http://freeafricanamericans.com/bailey-berry.htm

So if Willis Bass was bound out as a boy in Granville Co in 1801 and 1803, how could he be the son of someone who was living in Norfolk Co, VA during that time? The answer is that Willis Bass was not the son of James Bass of Norfolk Co, VA. And the apprenticeship records and court minutes of Granville Co identify the mother of Willis Bass and Racey Bass as Milly Bass.

The next time we find Willis Bass in the records was on 4 Jan 1809 when he married Olive Chavis. He was then counted in the 1810, 1820, and 1830 censuses for Granville Co. He lived in the Abrams Plains district which is a district in far northern Granville Co, immediately next to the Virginia state border. And this is the same district that he lived in when he was bound out to John Irby. Willis Bass’ 1810 household consisted of three people – himself, wife Olive, and a child. His sister Racey Bass was enumerated right next to him, head of a large household of 9 people. Willis Bass’ 1820 household consisted of 9 people (himself, wife Olive, 5 boys and 2 girls). His sister Racey Bass does not appear in the census again after 1810 and I wonder if some of the children in Willis’ 1820 household may have been his sister’s children. Willis Bass’ 1830 household consisted of 12 people (himself, wife Olive, 5 young men/boys, and 5 young women/girls).

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Willis Bass is enumerated in the 1810 census next to his sister Racey Bass. Note: the 1810 census was based off of alphabetical tax lists from each district in Granville County, so names listed next to one another are not necessarily neighbors. But names close to one another indicate living in the same district. in Source: Year: 1810; Census Place: Granville, North Carolina; Roll: 40; Page: 858; Image: 00228; Family History Library Film: 0337913
1820 willis bass
Willis Bass enumerated in the Abrams Plains district of Granville County in 1820. Source: Year: 1810; Census Place: Granville, North Carolina; Roll: 40; Page: 858; Image: 00228; Family History Library Film: 0337913

I also found that Willis Bass was twice the bondsman for marriages in Granville Co. He was the bondsman for the marriage between Joseph Peal and Jane Pettiford on 18 May 1822. Jane Pettiford was the daughter of Collins Pettiford and Polly Chavis (perhaps a family members of Willis Bass’ wife Olive Chavis). And Willis Bass was the bondsman for the marriage between Henry Bass and Eliza Hart on 26 Feb 1824. Henry Bass (b. 1800) is too old to be Willis’ son, but perhaps he was a close relative. Henry Bass relocated to Ohio, specifically Ross County which is a couple of counties over from where some of Willis Bass’ descendants relocated to.


Willis Bass’ (b. 1792) Descendants Filed Eastern Cherokee Applications

So the last time Willis Bass appears in Granville Co is in the 1830 census and we know from the size of the household that he had a large family. We next learn about what happened to Willis Bass from the Eastern Cherokee (Guion Miller) applications that his descendants filed.

If you’re not familiar with the Guion Miller roll, here is a blurb from familysearch:

The Guion Miller Roll is a list of Eastern Cherokees who applied for money awarded in 1905 because of a 1902 lawsuit in which the Eastern Cherokee tribe sued the United States for funds due them under the treaties of 1835, 1836 and 1845. Claimants were asked to prove they were members of the Eastern Cherokee tribe at the time of the treaties, or descended from members who had not been affiliated with any other tribe. Guion Miller, an agent of the Interior Department, was appointed as a commissioner of the Court of Claims to compile a list of claimants. He made an extensive enrollment of the Cherokees in 1907 and 1908.

Source: https://familysearch.org/learn/wiki/en/The_U.S._Eastern_Cherokee_or_Guion_Miller_Roll

Even though the applications for Willis Bass’ descendants were rejected, they are full of important genealogical information about his family. I will be doing a blog post hopefully soon about why so many of our families were labeled “Cherokee” despite not being tribally Cherokee. In that blog post I will explore that phenomenon more in depth but for now you should at least be aware that “Cherokee” was often synonymous for “Indian” in the Southeast.

Descendants of Willis Bass who filed Eastern Cherokee applications: grandsons: Elijah Bass Jr (#17657) and Peter Bass (#44383); great-grandchildren: two named Alice Revels (#14050 and #14118), Charles Bass (#14052), Malissa Roberts (#16153), Delia McCann (#16156), Matilda Bostwick (#16155), Martha J Bass (#17656), Mansfield Bass (#17659), Ransom Bass (#18015), Martha Anderson (#18350), Rosa Bass (#19825), Nora Thomas (#19826), and Matilda Newville (#15670); and great-great grandchildren: William Newville (#24366), Alice Elizabeth Carman (#24379), and Charley Newville (#32952). All applicants claimed descent from Willis Bass and Olive Chavis’ son Elijah Bass Sr. I won’t discuss each application because they are quite repetitive. Instead I’ll focus on a couple of applications that provide the most pertinent info.

Elijah Bass Jr and Elizabeth Arnold
Elijah Bass Jr (1835-1912) with his wife Elizabeth Arnold. Elijah Jr was the son of Elijah Bass Sr and the grandson of Willis Bass and Olive Chavis of Granville Co, NC. Elijah Bass Jr filed a (rejected) Eastern Cherokee application # 17567. Source: Ancestry, Username: Anthony DI DIO

By the time of the Eastern Cherokee roll applications in 1907, some descendants of Willis Bass had relocated from Granville Co, NC to Lawrence Co, OH and finally to Vernon Co, WI. We learn from Elijah Bass Jr’s application, that Willis and Olive Bass had the following children: Elijah Bass Sr, William Bass, Henry Bass, Racey Bass, Ransom Bass, Nancy Bass, Polly Bass, and Delia Bass. Elijah Bass Sr was the only one to relocate to Ohio, while the others continued to live in North Carolina. We have already seen the name Racey Bass from the apprenticeship records which show that Willis Bass had a sister named Racey Bass. The Racey name was passed down a lot in the Willis Bass family, and was used by both males and females.

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A page from Elijah Bass Jr’s Eastern Cherokee application (#17657). Source: NARA M1104. Eastern Cherokee Applications of the U.S. Court of Claims, 1906-1909.
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Another page of Elijah Bass Jr’s Eastern Cherokee application (#17657). Source: NARA M1104. Eastern Cherokee Applications of the U.S. Court of Claims, 1906-1909.

Elijah Bass Jr states that he was born on 15 Oct 1835 in Granville Co but relocated with his father Elijah Bass Sr to Lawrence Co, OH a couple of years later. This is consistent with Elijah Bass Sr first appearing in the Lawrence Co, OH census in 1840. However, Elijah Sr’s marriage record to Matilda Dutton of Pennsylvania was recorded on 20 March 1835 in Lawrence Co, OH. It seems unlikely that Elijah Sr would go all the way to Ohio to marry a woman from elsewhere, return to Granville Co where his first son was born, and then a few years later go back to Ohio. In the 1850 census, Elijah Jr’s birthplace is listed as Ohio and every other census after that it was listed as North Carolina. I wonder if Elijah Jr thought he was  born in North Carolina, when he was actually born in Ohio.

Another inconsistency is found when Elijah Bass Jr identified his grandparents as Willis Bass and Olive Stewart. We know from their 1809 marriage record in Granville Co, that Olive’s maiden name was Chavis. It’s possible that she was first married to a Chavis, became widowed and then married Willis Basss. But I could find no marriage record for an “Olive Stewart”. The Stewarts were another large “free colored”/Native American family in the area, and I suspect that Olive’s mother was a Stewart. The Stewarts and Chavises intermarried a lot on both sides of the VA/NC border. Because I have not been able to identify Olive’s parents, I can’t say for certain how the Stewarts fit into her lineage.

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Elijah Bass Jr’s Eastern Cherokee application (#17657) includes a handwritten note to the commissioner. Source: NARA M1104. Eastern Cherokee Applications of the U.S. Court of Claims, 1906-1909.
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Second page of the hand written note by Elijah Bass Jr included in his Eastern Cherokee application (#17657). Source: NARA M1104. Eastern Cherokee Applications of the U.S. Court of Claims, 1906-1909.

In a letter dated 25 Feb 1908, Elijah Bass Jr writes directly to the Guion Miller commissioner to provide some additional background information about his family.There are some big inconsistencies in his narrative with what is found in the actual records. Elijah Jr states that his grandparents (Willis and Olive Bass) had to flee from Virginia into North Carolina in 1812 because they were driven out of their land by white people. And that his grandfather Willis Bass had previously lived on a (Cherokee) reservation in Virginia.

But we know from apprenticeship, marriage, and census records that Willis Bass was born in North Carolina and is in the Granville Co records before 1812. I think this misleading narrative is why Heinegg tried to force a connection between Willis Bass of Granville Co and the James Bass of Norfolk Co, VA. This is why examining the totality of all the records is vital when you have conflicting stories. I do not think Elijah Bass Jr fabricated this story completely and that there is likely some truth in there. The events that he is recalling, happened well before his was born, so that may partially account for the mistakes. But I also wonder if the story about fleeing Virginia for North Carolina was more about his grandmother Olive Chavis’ lineage. Willis Bass’ widow Olive Chavis was enumerated in the 1850, 1860 and 1870 censuses, and her birthplace is given as Virginia. And earlier on in the 1810, 1820, and 1830 censuses, Olive Chavis (counted in her husband Willis Bass’s household) lived close to Evans Chavis (1770-after 1860), Charles Chavis, and Isaac Chavis (1766-1831). These three men were from neighboring Mecklenburg Co, VA and perhaps were of some relation to Olive Chavis.

I can say with certainty that all the Basses in Granville Co all descend from two brothers: Edward Bass (1672-1750) and John Bass (1673-1732) who initially left Suffolk, VA for North Carolina in 1720 and whose descendants were in Granville Co by the 1750s. Edward and John Bass were the documented grandsons of British colonist John Bass(e) and his Nansemond Indian wife Elizabeth. If you’d like a good recap of the Bass family of Granville Co, read my previous blog post. So the Basses were well established in Granville Co before 1812.

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This map shows the movement of brothers Edward and John Bass from their Nansemond homeland in Virginia to North Carolina. All of Edward Bass’ children and three of John Bass’ children moved and settled in Granville County by the 1750s. © Kianga Lucas

When we look at Elijah Jr’s brother Peter Bass’ Eastern Cherokee application, we find some additional information. In the Guion Miller applications, there is space for respondents to write down their “Indian names”. Peter Bass lists his Indian name as “Peter Chavers” and lists his father Elijah Bass Sr’s Indian name as “Elijah Chavers”. So we can clearly see Willis Bass’ descendants were aware that they descended from the Chavers (Chavis) family. Also, Chavis/Chavers is not an “Indian name”.

Peter Bass
Peter Bass (1844-1922) was the son of Elijah Bass Sr and the grandson of Willis Bass and Olive Chavis of Granville Co. He filed a (rejected) Eastern Cherokee application #44383. Source: Ancestry, Username: rmcilquham1
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A page from Peter Bass’ Eastern Cherokee application (#44363). Source: NARA M1104. Eastern Cherokee Applications of the U.S. Court of Claims, 1906-1909.

As stated earlier, all of the Eastern Cherokee enrollment applications for Willis Bass’ descendants were rejected. On Alice Revels’ (#14050) application, the Guion Miller commission provided the exact reason why the family’s applications were rejected. The Willis Bass family was never listed on any previous Cherokee rolls, never lived with the Cherokees, and Granville Co was never part of original Cherokee territory.

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All applications filed by Willis Bass’ descendants were rejected. The commission provided the exact reasons on Alice Revels’ application (#14050). Source: NARA M1104. Eastern Cherokee Applications of the U.S. Court of Claims, 1906-1909.
Samuel Bass and Eliza Jane Murphy
Samuel Bass (1838-1906) with wife Eliza Jane Murphy. He was the son of Elijah Bass Sr and the grandson of Willis Bass and Olive Chavis of Granville Co, NC. Samuel died just before the Eastern Cherokee application process started. Source: Ancestry, Username: SchusterL41
Elizabeth Bass
Elizabeth Bass (1840-1902) was the daughter of Elijah Bass Sr and the granddaughter of Willis Bass and Olive Chavis of Granville Co, NC. Elizabeth died a few years before the Eastern Cherokee application process began. Source: Ancestry, Username: rmcilquham1
Ransom Bass
Ransom Bass (1861-1947) was the son of Elijah Bass Jr, grandson of Elijah Bass Sr, and great-grandson of Willis Bass and Olive Chavis of Granville County. Ransom filed a (rejected) Eastern Cherokee application (#18015). Source: Ancestry, Username: rmcilquham1
Matilda Bass
Matilda (Bass) Newville (1863-1933) was the daughter of Elijah Bass Jr, granddaughter of Elijah Bass Sr, and great granddaughter of Willis Bass and Olive Chavis of Granville County. Matilda filed a (rejected) Eastern Cherokee application (#15670). Source: Ancestry, Username: deborah3311
Mansfield Bass
Mansfield Bass (1870-1945) was the son of Elijah Bass Jr, grandson of Elijah Bass Sr, and great grandson of Willis Bass and Olive Chavis of Granville County. Mansfield filed a (rejected) Eastern Cherokee application (#17659). Source: Ancestry, Username:

Addendum

In February 2016, Paul Heinegg updated the Bass section of his website with some of the corrected information I discussed above. He no longer has the Willis Bass who was the son of James Bass b. 1760 of Norfolk CO, VA and Bedford Co, TN as the same Willis Bass of Granville Co. Heinegg also provided additional records for the James Bass b. 1760 of Norfolk Co, VA and Bedford Co, TN so if you are a descendant of the this branch of the Bass family, it is worthwhile to revisit Heinegg’s Bass section:

http://freeafricanamericans.com/bailey-berry.htm

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Walter Plecker and Granville County’s Native Americans

Walter Plecker (1861-1947) is a very recognizable name in the history of Southeastern Native Americans. His name is not remembered for any good deeds though, but rather for his white supremacist views that essentially outlawed the identity of Native Americans during his lifetime. As the director of the Bureau of Vital Statistics in Virginia from 1912 to 1946, Plecker had the ability to change records and authorize how vital records should be recorded throughout the state. In the racial binary that Plecker was molding, there was no place for Native Americans. There was either “white” or “colored”, no exceptions. Plecker was responsible for creating the Racial Integrity Act of 1924 which legally classified all Virginians as either “white” or “colored” and outlawed all forms of miscegenation. Furthermore, Plecker pressured the Census Bureau to eliminate the “mulatto” category (a racial category that Native Americans in the Southeast were most often labeled under), and from 1930 onward “mulatto” was no longer used in the federal censuses.

What is important to understand about the Plecker era is that his obsession with keeping the races separate was well received by many Virginians. This was “Jim Crow” South, and Plecker’s racist ideas were mainstream. Adolph Hitler, leader of Nazi Germany was also influenced by Plecker’s views on race and eugenics. Because Plecker felt no shame in his actions, he left behind an extensive paper trail. Plecker and those working on his behalf were known to have changed vital records, for example:

Marriage record of two Monacan Indians Houston Robert Beverly and Lee Ann Clark. You can see how their races were originally recorded as "Indian" and then someone went back with a pen and wrote "mixed". Source: Virginia, Marriages, 1936-2014. Virginia Department of Health, Richmond, Virginia.
Marriage record of two Monacan Indians, Houston Robert Beverly and Lee Ann Clark. You can see how their races were originally recorded as “Indian” and then someone went back with a pen and wrote “mixed”.
Source: Virginia, Marriages, 1936-2014. Virginia Department of Health, Richmond, Virginia.

With a stroke of a pen, Plecker attempted to erase the identity of Virginia’s Native Americans and the impact of Plecker’s work is still felt today. The Pamunkey tribe after decades of waiting, just received federal recognition from the Bureau of Indian Affairs and have become the FIRST Virginia tribe to receive such recognition. However there are close to a dozen of state recognized tribes in Virginia that are still seeking federal recognition, and they are facing quite an uphill battle because of Plecker’s legacy.

Though there is much to write about Walter Plecker, the scope of this blog post is his January 1943 letter that he sent out to the head registrars of Vital Statistics in counties across Virginia. A full transcription of the 1943 Plecker letter can be found here. At the beginning of the letter, Plecker makes his intentions crystal clear:

Our December 1942 letter to local registrars, also mailed to the clerks, set forth the determined effort to escape from the negro race of groups of “free issues,” or descendants of the “free mulattoes” of early days, so listed prior to 1865 in the United States census and various types of State records, as distinguished from slave negroes. Now that these people are playing up the advantages gained by being permitted to give “Indian” as the race of the child’s parents on birth certificates, we see the great mistake made in not stopping earlier the organized propagation of this racial falsehood.

We see Plecker refer to the people as “free issues” which is reminiscent of the language that Oscar W. Blacknall used to describe Granville County’s Native Americans which I blogged about here. Also apparent is Plecker’s idea that the “Indian” racial category was providing social advantages that should not be allowed to “negroes”. Moreover, Plecker warns that “negroes” being able to pass for “Indian” is a threat to the white race, as stated here:

Some of these mongrels, finding that they have been able to sneak in their birth certificates unchallenged as Indians are now making a rush to register as white.

In Plecker’s warped view, “Indian” was a stepping stone for “negroes” to infiltrate the so-called purity of the “white race”. Plecker made it clear that any violation of this racial binary was against the law and should be reported:

To aid all of you in determining just which are the mixed families, we have made a list of their surnames by counties and cities, as complete as possible at this time. This list should be preserved by all, even by those in counties and cities not included, as these people are moving around over the State and changing race at the new place…Please report all known or suspicious cases to the Bureau of Vital Statistics, giving names, ages, parents, and as much other information as possible.

Plecker became so obsessed with keeping track of all these families that sought to be listed as “Indian”, that he created an actual list of surnames by county of these families. Here is the Plecker List:

Walter Plecker's 1943 Letter to the Registrars of Vital Statics across Virginia counties, included a list of surnames of families that Plecker determined should be categorized as
Walter Plecker’s 1943 Letter to the Registrars of Vital Statics across Virginia counties, included a list of surnames of families that Plecker determined should not be racially categorized as “Indian”. Unsurprisingly, many of the surnames listed here make up the families of Virginia’s Native American tribes.
Source: http://www2.vcdh.virginia.edu/lewisandclark/students/projects/monacans/Contemporary_Monacans/letterscan.html

And here is a fully transcribed version of Walter Plecker’s list from 1943:

SURNAMES, BY COUNTIES AND CITIES, OF MIXED NEGROID VIRGINIA FAMILIES STRIVING TO PASS AS “INDIAN” OR WHITE.

Albemarle: Moon, Powell, Kidd, Pumphrey.

Amherst (Migrants to Alleghany and Campbell): Adcock (Adcox), Beverly (this family is now trying to evade the situation by adopting the name of Burch or Birch, which was the name of the white mother of the present adult generation), Branham, Duff, Floyd, Hamilton, Hartless, Hicks, Johns, Lawless, Nuckles (Knuckles), Painter, Ramsey, Redcross, Roberts, Southards (Suthards, Southerds, Southers), Sorrells, Terry, Tyree, Willis, Clark, Cash, Wood.

Bedford: McVey, Maxey, Branham, Burley. (See Amherst County)

Rockbridge (Migrants to Augusta): Cash, Clark, Coleman, Duff, Floyd, Hartless, Hicks, Mason, Mayse (Mays), Painters, Pultz, Ramsey, Southerds (Southers, Southards, Suthards), Sorrells, Terry, Tyree, Wood, Johns.

Charles City: Collins, Dennis, Bradby, Howell, Langston, Stewart, Wynn, Adkins.

King William: Collins, Dennis, Bradby, Howell, Langston, Stewart, Wynn, Custalow (Custaloe), Dungoe, Holmes, Miles, Page, Allmond, Adams, Hawkes, Suprlock, Doggett.

New Kent: Collins, Bradby, Stewart, Wynn, Adkins, Langston.

Henrico and Richmond City: See Charles City, New Kent, and King William.

Caroline: Byrd, Fortune, Nelson. (See Essex)

Essex and King and Queen: Nelson, Fortune, Byrd, Cooper, Tate, Hammond, Brooks, Boughton, Prince, Mitchell, Robinson.

Elizabeth City & Newport News: Stewart (descendants of the Charles City families).

Halifax: Epps (Eppes), Stewart (Stuart), Coleman, Johnson, Martin, Talley, Sheppard (Shepard), Young.

Norfolk County & Portsmouth: Sawyer, Bass, Weaver, Locklear (Locklair), King, Bright, Porter, Ingram.

Westmoreland: Sorrells, Worlds (or Worrell), Atwells, Gutridge, Oliff.

Greene: Shifflett, Shiflet.

Prince William: Tyson, Segar. (See Fauquier)

Fauquier: Hoffman (Huffman), Riley, Colvin, Phillips. (See Prince William)

Lancaster: Dorsey (Dawson).

Washington: Beverly, Barlow, Thomas, Hughes, Lethcoe, Worley.

Roanoke County: Beverly. (See Washington)

Lee and Smyth: Collins, Gibson (Gipson), Moore, Goins, Ramsey, Delph, Bunch, Freeman, Mise, Barlow, Bolden (Bolin), Mullins, Hawkins. — Chiefly Tennessee “Melungeons.”

Scott: Dingus. (See Lee County)

Russell: Keith, Castell, Stillwell, Meade, Proffitt. (See Lee & Tazewell)

Tazewell: Hammed, Duncan. (See Russell)

Wise: See Lee, Smyth, Scott, and Russell Counties.


So what does this have to do with Granville County?

As I’ve shown through earlier blog posts and more yet to come, many of Granville’s Native American families have Virginia tribal origins. These families that came to Granville left behind plenty of family members that remained in Virginia. Additionally, Granville County shares a border with Virginia (Mecklenburg and Halifax Cos), and so the social influence of Plecker and his cronies certainly did not end at Virginia’s border with Granville County. We need to keep this historical context in mind when reviewing records of Native Americans in the Southeast.

The surnames that I highlighted from Plecker’s list above are from the same family lines of Granville County’s Native Americans. Some further information:

BRANHAM – Listed in Amherst and Bedford counties, the Branhams are a core family of the Monacan Indian Nation. The BRANDON (sometimes spelled Brannum, Brandum) family of Granville County is originally from the Virginia Piedmont and is the same family as the Branhams, just a spelling/pronunciation difference. I also believe the Branham/Brandon family to have ties to Fort Christanna in Brunswick Co, VA, where Saponi and allied tribes including the Monacan resided from 1714-1718.

Pantheyer Brandon (1851-1934). She was the daughter of Hilliard Evans and Betsy Brandon and a lifelong resident of Fishing Creek township in Granville County. She comes from the same Branham family in Plecker's letter. Source: Ancestry, Username: rthomas1973
Pantheyer Brandon (1851-1934). She was the daughter of Hilliard Evans and Betsy Brandon and a lifelong resident of Fishing Creek township in Granville County. She comes from the same Branham family in Plecker’s letter.
Source: Ancestry, Username: rthomas1973

REDCROSS – Listed in Amherst county like the Branhams, the Redrosses are also members the Monacan Indian Nation. Though no Redcrosses made it to Granville County, we know that they are the same family as the Evans family of Granville. Recall my blog post about some of the Evans descendants who were illegally enslaved and were freed on account that they descended from a free Indian woman. Testimony seen here from those court cases reveal that the Redcross family are descendants of the same Evans family.

HOWELL – Listed in Charles City, King William, and Henrico counties and the city of Richmond, the Howell family are from the Pamunkey Tribe. The Howells from Granville County have roots in New Kent County (in between Charles City and King William) and started to move into Virginia’s southside counties. One branch stemming from Freeman Howell moved across the state border into Granville in the early 1800s. Oddly, Plecker doesn’t list New Kent as a location for the Howells which is where the Pamunkey Howells primarily resided but lists them in every surrounding municipality (perhaps an oversight).

Adeline Jane Howell (1858 - after 1900) Daughter of Alexander "Doc" Howell and Betsy Ann Anderson. Adeline comes from the same Howell family in Plecker's letter. Source: Ancestry, Username: rthomas 1973
Adeline Jane Howell (1858 – after 1900). Daughter of Alexander “Doc” Howell and Betsy Ann Anderson. She lived in Fishing Creek township in Granville County and moved to Nash County later in life. Adeline comes from the same Howell family in Plecker’s letter.
Source: Ancestry, Username: rthomas 1973

STEWART/STUART – Listed in Charles City, New Kent, King William, Henrico, Richmond, Elizabeth City, Newport News, and Halifax. The Stewarts found in all the municipalities except Halifax are from the Pamunkey and Chickahominy tribes. The Halifax County Stewarts are from the Sappony Tribe. It is unclear to me if both the Pamunkey/Chickahominy Stewarts and the Sappony Stewarts are the same family but I’ve included them both just in case. The Granville County Stewarts are the same family as the Sappony Stewarts in neighboring Halifax Co, VA and Person Co, NC. The Sappony Tribe’s tribal territory extends to both sides of the VA/NC state border.

BASS: Listed in Norfolk and Portsmouth, the Bass family have a well documented Nansemond tribal origin that I previously blogged about here. We know that many of the Nansemond Basses relocated to North Carolina, making their way to Granville by the late 1740s. Granville’s Anderson family also has tribal roots with the Nansemond Bass family that I blogged about here.

Alonzo Bass (1859-1941). Son of William Hardy Bass and Sarah Evans. Alonzo's Bass family is from Granville and he lived in neighboring Person, and Orange counties. He is from the same Bass family found in Walter Plecker's letter. Source: Ancestry, User:  randymaultsby
Alonzo Bass (1859-1941). Son of William Hardy Bass and Sarah Evans. Alonzo’s Bass family is from Granville and he lived in neighboring Person, and Orange counties. He is from the same Bass family found in  Plecker’s letter.
Source: Ancestry, User: randymaultsby

WEAVER: Listed in Norfolk and Portsmouth, there are Weavers in the Nansemond Tribe as well as the Meherrin Tribe (who adopted in Nansemond, Chowanoke, and other coastal Algonquin tribes). The Weaver family originates from East Indian indentured servants brought to Virginia in the early 1700s who intermarried with local Virginia tribes. The Weavers moved into North Carolina, with a few branches coming to Granville County in the mid 1800s.

LOCKLEAR: Listed in Norfolk and Portsmouth, the Locklear family is more well known in North Carolina, where it is one of the most common surnames found among Native Americans in Robeson County (Lumbee and Tuscarora Indians). There was one branch of the Locklear family that lived in and around Granville County. That branch comes from a man named Randall Locklear (born 1730) whose descendants lived in neighboring Granville and Wake counties.

GIBSON: Listed in Lee and Smyth counties, the Gibson family originally comes from the Charles City County area of Virginia, dating back to the early 1700s. There are two well known Gibson ancestors of Granville’s Native Americans. The first is Jane Gibson, the maternal ancestor of the Evans family who was described as an “old Indian woman” and I blogged about here. The second is Frances Gibson, wife of William Chavis. William Chavis’ original land plot formed the land base for Granville’s Native American community. There are many different opinions about the tribal origins of the Gibsons, but I suspect them to be originally of Algonquian heritage, given their earliest known locations.

Ira Evans (1879-1968). He was the son of Lewis Evans and Zibra Bookram. Ira was born in Granville where both of his parents were from and lived most of his live in neighboring Durham County. Source: Ancestry, Username: LaMonica Williams
Ira Evans (1879-1968). He was the son of Lewis Evans and Zibra Bookram. Ira was born in Granville where both of his parents were from and lived most of his live in neighboring Durham County. He descends from the same Gibson family in Plecker’s letter. 
Source: Ancestry, Username: LaMonica Williams
Delia Harris (1843 - after 1870), granddaughter of Martha Harris. She is listed in Martha's household in the 1850 census for Granville County, listed as "Dilly Harris" age 7.  Source: Marvin Richardson. Please do not reproduce.
Delia Harris (1843 – after 1870). She was the daughter of Fanny Harris and William Henry Mills. She descends from the same Gibson family (via her Harris/Chavis line) listed in Plecker’s letter.
Source: Marvin Richardson. Please do not reproduce.

GOINS: Listed in Lee and Smyth counties, the Goins have  Tidewater Virginia roots. The Goins came to Granville County in the 1740s with many remaining in Granville. Though by the early 1900s, the Goins (also spelled Goings, Gowens) surname had mostly “daughtered out”. The same Goins family are also found in Robeson County, NC among the Lumbee.

BUNCH: Listed in Lee and Smyth counties, the Bunches as well have Tidewater Virginia roots. There were some Bunches in Granville Co in the 1750s, but they did not stay long, with most leaving the county and the state. However, there are Bunch descendants found among some of the Bass family through the marriage of Thomas Bass and Thomasine Bunch.

The Boon(e) Family from the Tuscarora “Indian Woods” Reservation

The Boon(e) family in Granville County descends from a woman named Rebecca Boon (born 1805) who moved to Granville in the 1840s. Her Boone family originally came from the Tuscarora “Indian Woods” reservation in Bertie County. In addition to Granville County, there are Boon(e) descendants in the Haliwa-Saponi tribe and the Meherrin Tribe. This blog entry will take a closer look at the historical records that connect the Boon(e) family to the Indian Woods reservation.

Rebecca Boon (born 1805)

Before discussing the Boon family’s tribal origins, I will first provide more background information on Rebecca Boon. She is the most recent common ancestor of every Boon that I have identified from Granville County.

Rebecca first appears in the census in 1840 in Northampton County, NC. She is the head of a household that includes 1 Free Colored Female 24-35; 1 Free Colored Male 10-23; 1 Free Colored Male Under 10; 2 Free Colored Females 10-23; 2 Free Colored Females Under 10. From this census data, we can surmise that Rebecca Boon is the head of a household that includes 6 children (2 boys, 4 girls) that are most likely her children.

Rebecca Boon in the 1840 Census in Northampton County, NC. Source; Year: 1840; Census Place: Northampton, North Carolina; Roll: 366; Page: 111; Image: 229; Family History Library Film: 0018096
Rebecca Boon in the 1840 Census in Northampton County, NC.
Source: Year: 1840; Census Place: Northampton, North Carolina; Roll: 366; Page: 111; Image: 229; Family History Library Film: 0018096

The next record for Rebecca Boon is in 1847, when she married Iverson Mitchell from the Native American/”free colored” Mitchell family in Granville County. By marrying Iverson Mitchell, Rebecca relocated her family to the center of the Native American community in Granville. In the 1850 census for Granville County, she is listed as “Rebecca Mitchell” and is living with her husband Iverson Mitchell, and her youngest children Jane Boon and Margaret Boon.

Rebecca (Boon) Mitchell shown with her husband Iverson Mitchell and children Jane and Margaret Boon. Rebecca's daughter Ruth Boon is showing living in the next household, married to Lewis Anderson. Source: Year: 1850; Census Place: Oxford, Granville, North Carolina; Roll: M432_631; Page: 107B; Image: 214
Rebecca (Boon) Mitchell shown with her husband Iverson Mitchell and children Jane Boon and Margaret Boon. Rebecca’s daughter Ruth Boon is showing living in the next household, married to Lewis Anderson.
Source: Year: 1850; Census Place: Oxford, Granville, North Carolina; Roll: M432_631; Page: 107B; Image: 214

Rebecca last appears in the 1860 census in Granville County, when she is listed in the household of her son-in-law Lewis Anderson who is married to her daughter Ruth Boon.

Rebecca Boon is shown living in the household of her son-in-law Lewis Anderson. Because Rebecca is listed with the Boon surname and without her husband Iverson Mitchell, it is most likely the died or they divorced. Source: Year: 1860; Census Place: Oxford, Granville, North Carolina; Roll: M653_898; Page: 531; Image: 537; Family History Library Film: 803898
Rebecca Boon is shown living in the household of her son-in-law Lewis Anderson. Because Rebecca is listed with the Boon surname and without her husband Iverson Mitchell, she is likely widowed or divorced.
Source: Year: 1860; Census Place: Oxford, Granville, North Carolina; Roll: M653_898; Page: 531; Image: 537; Family History Library Film: 803898

Below is a list of Rebecca Boon’s children:

1. James Boon (born 1825) – married first Martha Curtis and second Mary Drew

2. Martha Boon (born 1827) – married Cuffy Mayo (this is not the same Cuffy Mayo who was married to Glathy Ann Pettiford-Hawkins and Julia Pettiford- Hawley)

3. Betsy Boon (born 1828) – married John Mills

4. Willis Boon (born 1829) – married Isabella Mayo

4. Ruth Boon (born 1832) – married Lewis Anderson

5. Jane Boon (born 1837)

6. Margaret Boon (born 1842)

and possibly 7. Emeline Boon (birth date unknown) – married Samuel Hawley

Willis Boon ( born 1829) put out an reward for the return of his daughter Martha Boon. It appears she ran away and Willis suspected that someone was hiding her. Perhaps relevant - the following year in 1879, Martha Boon wed John Jones. Source: The Torchlight, 2 Apr 1878, Tue, Page 2
Willis Boon ( born 1829) put out a reward for the return of his daughter Martha Boon. It appears she ran away and Willis suspected that someone was hiding her. Perhaps relevant – the following year in 1879, Martha Boon wed John Jones.
Source: The Torchlight, 2 Apr 1878, Tue, Page 2
New article about Isabelle (Mayo) Boon, wife of Willis Boon. Source: Oxford Public Ledger, 6 Feb 1920, Fri, Page 1
Newspaper article about Isabella (Mayo) Boon, wife of Willis Boon.
Source: Oxford Public Ledger, 6 Feb 1920, Fri, Page 1
Sylvester
Sylvester “Sylvia” Boon (1906-1980) was the daughter of Charlie Boon and Bettie Williford. Her grandfather was Willis Boon (born 1829) and great-grandmother was Rebecca Boon (born 1805). Sylvia Boon lived in Granville County for most of her life. 
Source: Kellie Cervero Harris (Sylvia’s great-granddaughter)
Sylvester
Sylvester “Sylvia” Boon (1906-1980) pictured here again with her great-granddaughter Kellie.
Source: Kellie Cervero Harris (Sylvia’s great-granddaughter)

The earliest verified records for the Boon(e) family are found in Bertie County in the mid/late 1700s. Unfortunately there are no land records or estate records associated with the Boones during this time period. There are however a number of court cases that involve several Boon(e) children being bound out. In these records, the Boones were labeled as “mulatto” and were free people, not enslaved. Some of the genealogical information on the Boon(e) family comes from Paul Heinegg’s research.

Boon(e) Family Tree showing the earliest Boones. Please note that not every Boon(e) is listed in the family tree, only the Boone(e) discussed within the blog are listed. © Kianga Lucas
Boon(e) Family Tree showing the earliest Boones. Please note that not every Boon(e) is listed in the family tree, only the Boone(e) discussed within the blog are listed.
© Kianga Lucas

Patt Boone (born abt 1742) and her offspring

The Bertie County court bound out several of Patt Boon’s (born abt 1742) children to James Brown in 1774. These children were: Lewis, Katie, Judah, and Arthur. Patt Boon’s age is unknown and can only be estimated based upon the birth dates of her children. So with that in mind, researcher Paul Heinegg estimated her birth date to be 1742. In 1772, Rachel Boon was a “mollatter” listed as a tithable in the household of a white man named James Purvis. In 1769, it appears Rachel was also in James Purvis’ home because he was charged with a tax for having a free non-white woman in his home. Heinegg believes this Rachel is a daughter of Patt Boon. Two of Rachel Boon’s sons – Willis Boon and Hill Boon, were bound out in 1791 to Richard Veal. A girl named Sarah Boon who Heinegg suspects is a daughter of Rachel Boon’s, was bound out to Thomas Pugh Jr in 1789. Another suspected daughter of Patt Boon’s named Rebeeca Boon (born about 1767) had a son named Cary Boon bound out also to Richard Veal in 1792.


Boon(e) Family and Indian Woods

Map showing the boundaries of the Indian Woods. The red boundary reflects the 1748 boundaries when the reservation was defined. The blue addition represents land that was most likely part of the reservation in 1717 when it was not clearly defined. The Boon family resided with Thomas Pugh Jr who lived directly on the reservation, with James Purvis and Richard Veal who lived adjacent to the reservation, and with James Brown who lived very close to the reservation. Source: http://dc.lib.unc.edu/cdm/singleitem/collection/ncmaps/id/7753/rec/12
Map showing the boundaries of the Indian Woods reservation. The red boundary reflects the 1748 boundaries when the reservation was defined. The blue addition represents land that was most likely part of the reservation in 1717 when it was not clearly defined. The Boon family resided with Thomas Pugh Jr who lived directly on the reservation, with James Purvis and Richard Veal who lived adjacent to the reservation, and with James Brown who lived very close to the reservation.
Source: http://dc.lib.unc.edu/cdm/singleitem/collection/ncmaps/id/7753/rec/12

When we take a closer look at these men from Bertie County who are associated with various members of the Boon family, we start to see the Tuscarora Indian Woods connections.

James Purvis, the man who Rachel Boon was living with in 1769 and 1772, is recorded in 1766 selling land on the north side of Roquist Swamp (Creek).

1765: Deed Book K, 659 (475), 18 May 1765. James Purvis of Bertie Co. to Charles King of same, £33.6.8 proclamation money, 1/3 part of land which MARTIN GARDNER gave to his 3 daughters, on north side of Rockquis Swamp, joining William Sparkman, John Rhoads. Witnesses: William Gouge, James Purvis. June Court 1765. CC: John Johnston.[Deeds of Bertie County, North Carolina, 1757-1785, Part 1, by Dr. Stephen E. Bradley, Jr., page 61]

Source: http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=7213&id=I24392

James Purvis’ wife was Jane (Gardner) Purvis, daughter of the above mentioned Martin Gardner. Jane inherited this land from her father’s 1760 will in Bertie County and so that is why her husband James later sold it.

Recall from my blog post about the boundaries of the Tuscarora “Indian Woods” reservation, that Roquist Swamp (Creek) forms a long natural border of the reservation. The reservation abuts the southside of the creek, and James Purvis’ land that his wife inherited from her father Martin Gardner, abuts the north side of the creek.

Also of important relevance is that Martin Gardner was a close friend of Needham Bryan (1690-1770), who served as executor of Martin Gardner’s 1760 will that granted land to Jane (Gardner) Purvis. Needham Bryan owned Snowfield Plantation located within the Indian Woods reservation and he held a number of important public offices. The location of Needham Bryan’s land within Indian Woods is confirmed in this colonial record from 1773 (Moratuck is the Roanoke River):

Upon a Complaint of the Chief of the Tuscarora Indians that one William King had entered upon and committed waste upon the Lands lying on the North side of Moratuck which lands were granted to Col. Needham Bryan by the Lords proprietors upon the failure of that nation of Indians and afterwards confirmed to him by the Legislature of this Province, it was the opinion of this Board that His Excellency should write a letter to Mr Wm King to remove off the Land or shew cause why he had possession of it.

Source: http://docsouth.unc.edu/csr/index.html/document/csr09-0230

We also learn in an earlier colonial record from 1764 that Needham Bryan had a close relationship with the Tuscarora where he is shown attending to their needs:

Resolved, that Mr. Needham Bryan enquire into the cause of the Tuscarora Indians attending this Assembly, and provide necessaries for their subsistance, and report thereon

Source: http://docsouth.unc.edu/csr/index.html/document/csr06-0369

Then we have Richard Veal – the man who Rachel Boon’s sons Willis and Hill and Rebecca Boon’s son Cary were bound to. Richard Veal purchased land in 1805 next to Roquist Swamp (Creek):

Witnesseth that the said DEMPSEY VEALE hath bargained
sold and put into possession of the said RICHARD VEAL a
certain tract or message of land lying and being in the
State and County aforesaid lying in ROCQUIST POCOSIN, it
being a prt of the land that belonged to MORRIS VEAL
dec’d.

Source: http://files.usgwarchives.net/nc/bertie/veal1805.txt

So two men – James Purvis and Richard Veal, both living on land adjoining the Indian Woods reservation, have several members of the Boon family residing in their homes.

There is also James Brown, the man who four of Patt Boone’s children – Lewis, Katie, Judah and Arthur were bound out to in 1774. According to land transactions found here and here, James Brown lived near the fork of the Cashie River, close to the Harrell family that frequently appears in the Bertie County records. This land is not immediately adjacent to the reservation but is still extremely close to the reservation as indicated in the map above.

Thomas Pugh Sr (1728-1806) and Thomas Pugh Jr (1748-1799)

When we closely examine Thomas Pugh Jr, the man who Rachel Boon’s probable daughter Sarah Boon was bound to, we see an even stronger connection between the Boon family and Indian Woods.

In 1778, the General Assembly of North Carolina appointed Thomas Pugh Sr. (1728-1806)William Williams, Willie Jones, Simon Turner and Zedekiah Stone as commissioners for the Indian Woods reservation. Roberta Estes provides additional information about the 1778 act:

It appointed William Williams, Thomas Pugh, Willie Jones and Simon Turner and Zedekiah Stone commissioners for the Indians and empowered the said commissioners to hold courts, etc. for the redress of the grievances of the Indians. It further enacted that the land leased by the Tuscarora Indians to Jones, Williams and Pugh and to other persons prior to ’77 “shall revert to and become the property of the State at the expiration of the terms of the several leases mentioned, if the said Nation to then extinct. And the lands now belonging to and possessed by the said Tuscaroras shall revert to and become the property of the State whenever the said Nation shall become extinct, or shall entirely abandoned or remove themselves off the said lands and every part thereof.

Source: http://nativeheritageproject.com/2012/10/10/tuscarora-people-identified-in-land-and-other-transactions-part-3/

In 1766, Thomas Pugh, Robert Jones, and William Williams had leased 8,000 acres of reservation land from the Tuscarora. The money from this lease was used to relocate some of the Tuscarora to upstate New York to rejoin the Haudenosaunee Confederacy:

Between James Allen, John Wiggins, Billy George, Snipnose George, Bille Cain, Charles Cornelius, Thomas Blount, John Rogers, George Blount, Wineoak Charles, Bille Basket, Bille Owens, Lewis Tuffdick, Isaac Miller, Harry Samuel, Bridgers Thomas, Senicar[1] Thomas Howett, Bille Sockey, Bille Corelius, John Senicar, Thomas Baskett, John Cain, Billy Denis, William Taylor, Owins John Walker, Bille Mitchell, Bille Netop, Billy Blount, Tom Jack, John Litewood, Billy Robert, James Mitchell, Capt. Joe and William Pugh, Chieftains and Principal persons of that part of the Nation of Indians commonly called Tuskarora Indians dwelling in the county of Bertie in the Province of NC on the one part and Robert Jones, Jr., his majesty’s attorney general of the province aforesaid and William Williams and Thomas Pugh of the said province, gentlemen of the second part. Witnesseth that the said Tusckarora Indians as well for and in consideration of the sum of 1500 pounds proclamation money to them in hand paid or secured to be paid for their own use and for the use of the rest of that part of the said Nation of Tuscarora dwelling in the county and Province aforesaid. As for the yearly rents and covenants herein after mentioned have demised granted and to form let and by these presents in behalf of themselves and their said nation to demise ??? and to form let unto the said Robert Jones Jr., William Williams and Thomas Pugh, all that dividend or tract of land lying and being on the North side of Roanoke River in Bertie County and bounded as follows, to wit. Beginning at the mouth of Deep Creek otherwise known as Falling River then running up the sand creek to the ?? or head line thence by the said line south 50 ?? degrees East 1280 poled thence with the course of said Creek to Roanoke River and the River to the beginning….together with appurtenances….unto the said Robert Jones, William Williams and Thomas Pugh….8000 acres of land to be enjoyed severally, each holding one third equal part…for the term of 150 years….to be paid yearly every year one peppercorn if demanded on the feast of St. Michael. This deed was registered in the September Court of 1767.

Source: http://nativeheritageproject.com/2012/10/12/tuscarora-people-identifed-in-land-and-other-transactions-part-5/

Again in 1775, Thomas Pugh, William Williams, and Willie Jones leased 2,000 acres of reservation land from the Tuscarora:

298-(316) Whitmell Tufdick, Wineoak Charles Jr., Billie Roberts, Lewis Tufdick, West Tufdick, Billie Blunt Sr., Billie Blunt Jr., John Rodgers, John Smith, Billie Pugh, Billie Baskit, John Hicks, Samuel Bridgers, John Owens, James Mitchell, Isaac Cornelius, Tom Tomas, & Walter Gibson, chieftans of the Tuskarora Indians to Thomas Pugh, Willie Jones & William Williams. 2 Dec 1775. For the yearly rent of 80 Duffield Blankets, 80 Oznatrig Shirts, 80 prs of boots, 50 pounds of powder & 150 pounds of shot. 2000 acres which was part of the land called the Indian Lands, joining Town Swamp, the old path that leads to Unarowick Swamp, James Wiggins, Unrinta Road, Quitana Swamp, Rocquist, Jones, Williams, Pugh, excepting 300 acres Watking now tends. Signed by: Bille(x)Cain, John Hicks, John Rogers, John(X)Owen, James(X)Hicks, Bille(x)Smith, Bille(x)Mitchell, Billie(x)Pugh, Wineoak(x)Chalres, James(X) Mitchell, Bille(X)Blunt, Jr., Saml(X)Bridgers, Tom Roberts.

Source: http://www.coastalcarolinaindians.com/bertie-county-deed-book-m-1777-various-abstracts/

And again in 1777, Thomas Pugh leased 100 acres of reservation land from the Tuscarora:

297-(315) Whitmell Tufdick, William Roberts, William Blount, Lewis Tufdick, John Randal, William Pugh, James Mitchel, Winoak Charles, William Basket, John Owens, Thomas Roberts, Walter Gibson, Billy Cane chieftans of the Tuscarora Indians in Bertie County to Thomas Pugh Sr. of same. 28 May 1777. The lease for 99 years @ 8 pounds per year of 100 acres, joining Black Gut Neck on Town Swamp, Roanoke River. Signed by: Billy (x) Blunt, Wineoak (x) Charles, Ben (x) Smith, Walter (X) Gibson, Thomas (X) Roberts, John (X) Ra nndel, Whitmell (x) Tuffdick, Billey (X) Cane, Lewis (x) Tufdick, Billey (x) Baskit, William (x) Pugh, Williams (x) Roberts, James (x) Mitchell. WITNESSES: Zedekiah Stone Jr., Thomas Whitmell Jr., May Ct 1777. John Johntston CJC

Source: http://www.coastalcarolinaindians.com/bertie-county-deed-book-m-1777-various-abstracts/

Thomas Pugh Sr’s son Thomas Pugh Jr, who Sarah Boon was bound out to, was a witness to a reservation land lease between the Tuscarora and Zedekiah Stone (one of the Indian Woods reservation commissioners) in 1777:

296-(314) Articles of agreement between WHITMELL TUFDICK, WILLIAM ROBERTS, WILLIAM CAIN, WILLIAM BLOUNT, TOM SMITH, JOHN SMITH, & LEWIS TUFDICK of Bertie Co., chieftans of the Tuscarora Indians on Roanoke River to ZEDEKIAH STONE of same. 10 Feb 1777. Sd chieftains were desirous that sd STONE should clear land, joining Coniack Neck, TITUS EDWARDS, Cesars Island, the river. Sd STONE agrees not to disturb JOSEPH LLOYD & THOMAS SMITH & SARAH HICKS. Sd STONE will be permittd to occupy the sd land for the space of 99 years. SIGNED BY: William Basket, Molley Smith, Benja. Smith, Sarah Hicks, Sarah Baskett, Watt & Gibson, Whitmell Tuffdick, Thomas (x) Smith, John Rodgers, Samuel Bridgers, William Roberts, Wineoak Charles, ZEdekiah Stone, John Owens, Thomas Baskett, William (x) Caine, Edward (x) Blount, John (x) Smith, James (x) Mitchell, John (x) Randle, William (x) Blount, Lewis (x) Tufdick, William (x) Pugh, West Whitmell (x) Tuffdick. WITNESSES: Thomas Pugh, Jr., Titus Edwards, Thos. Pugh, Sr.. May Court 1777. John Johnston Clerk of Court

Source: http://www.coastalcarolinaindians.com/bertie-county-deed-book-m-1777-various-abstracts/

You will also notice that one of the Tuscarora chieftans on the land deeds named “William Pugh” likely adopted his Pugh surname from Thomas Pugh Sr. Clearly the Pugh family was closely involved with the Tuscarora at Indian Woods in a formal and personal capacity. Sarah Boon being a Tuscarora girl bound out to the Pugh family who are commissioners and leasers of the Indian Woods reservation makes sense.

I believe a reasonable explanation for all the above historical records is that the Boon family were Tuscarora from the Indian Woods reservation. That is why there are no early land purchases or estate records associated with them because they were living on communally owned reservation land. Due to increasing impoverished and deteriorating conditions and with many of the Tuscarora families moving up North or away from the reservation, the Boon family were forced to place their children as indentured servants in the homes of neighboring white families. This is why the Boones seem to suddenly emerge out of nowhere in the court records in the 1760s/1770s. This was the exact same time that large numbers of Tuscarora were moving North and leasing their reservation land to the same men who many members of the Boon family were bound out to.


Descendants of Patt Boon

Lewis Boone (born 1757-1844):

Patt Boon’s son Lewis Boone (1757-1844) was bound out in 1774 in Bertie County. He then appears in the 1800 census for Northampton County, NC and in the 1810, 1820, and 1830 censuses for Halifax County (his household was enumerated in every census as “free colored”). Lewis filed a Revolutionary War pension application (excerpts found here) in 1843 in Halifax County which confirmed that he was born in Bertie County and lived a short while in Northampton County before relocating to Halifax County. The pension application includes some very important details about Lewis Boone’s service which further verifies the Boone family’s origins with the Tuscarora at Indian Woods.

Lewis Boone enlisted via the draft in 1778 in Bertie County with Uriah Dunning and served under Captain James Blount of the 10th Regiment. Lewis Boone also indicated that Captain William Williams marched him from Bertie County to Halifax which is where he enlisted under Captain Blount. This Captain William Williams is the same William Williams who was appointed as a commissioner of the Indian Woods reservation in 1778 and whose name appears on several Indian Woods land leases with previously mentioned Thomas Pugh. Captain James Blount who commanded Lewis Boone’s regiment, was from the Blount family who was the namesake for Tuscarora chief – “King Blount”.  It was not uncommon for Native Americans to adopt the names of “friendly” colonists. The pension application did not list the names of Lewis Boone’s wife or children. However through the rejected Cherokee Dawes and Eastern Cherokee/Guion Miller applications that were filed by Lewis Boone’s descendants, we know who some of his children were. Many non-Cherokee Native American families from North Carolina were often mislabeled and sometimes self-identified as Cherokee, which resulted in these families applying for Cherokee status. This will be a subject of a future blog post. Cherokee anthropologist Robert K. Thomas, who did fieldwork in the mid 1970s to investigate the claims of many of the self-identified “Cherokee” communities of the Southeast, had this to say about the Tuscarora heritage of the Haliwa-Saponi (the tribal community of Lewis Boone’s descendants):

They do not accept the term Haliwa and refer to themselves as Cherokee although the term Haliwa is gaining more acceptance as time goes on. This tribe appears from the research I have done, to be the remnants of the North Carolina Tuscaroras. When the Tuscaroras fled north in the early 1700s they left a large body, of so-called neutral Tuscarora, on a reservation just to the east of the modern Haliwa country near Windsor, North Carolina. There were several hundred Indians left on that reservation after the “hostile” Tuscaroras fled north and became part of the Iroquois League in New York. Slowly throughout the 1700’s, parties of Indians left that reservation and joined their brethren in New York. In the first decade of the 1800’s the few remaining Tuscarora sold their lands at Windsor, North Carolina. It appears they simply moved west a few miles to the present Haliwa area. There were a few other Indians, possibly Tuscarora, already living in that area. In any case, it appears that the Haliwa are remnants of the neutral Tuscarora.

Source: http://works.bepress.com/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1023&context=robert_thomas

The Haliwa-Saponi tribe officially states to be descended mostly from the Saponi, Tuscarora, and Nansemond tribes. Like Thomas, historian and Haliwa-Saponi tribal member Marvin Richardson also noted the very short distance between the Indian Woods reservation and the Haliwa community:

The Tuscarora Reservation, known as Reskooteh Town and Indian Wood, was located in Bertie County, North Carolina, approximately thirty miles east of the modern Haliwa-Saponi community. The reservation consisted initially of 40,000 acres, bordered eastern Halifax County, and included a village known as the Sapona Town. By 1734 some Nansemond were also living with the Nottoway Indians in Virginia, and other Nansemond had resettled near the Tuscarora in North Carolina.

Source: http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/nc-american-indians/7266

Lewis Boone’s children:

1. Dorcas Boone born about 1794 was married to Hardy Richardson, son of Benjamin Richardson and Mary Bass (of the Nansemond Bass family). Dorcas Boone and her husband Benjamin Richardson are the progenitors of many of the Richardsons in the Haliwa-Saponi tribe. Dorcas’ Native identity is asserted in the Richardson family’s rejected 1896 Cherokee Dawes applications and rejected 1906 Eastern Cherokee/Guion Miller application, where she is referred to as being an Indian doctor and midwife. Some of Dorcas’ descendants list her maiden name as “Pope” despite Lewis Boone being Dorcas’ father. It is likely that Lewis Boone’s wife/Dorcas’ mother was a Pope.

Testimony from W.K.A. Williams in support of the Richardson family's 1896 Dawes Cherokee application....
Testimony from W.K.A. Williams in support of the Richardson family’s 1896 Cherokee Dawes application, “… that the old woman Darkis or Darcus (the wife of Hardie) was a midwife and as such officiated at affiants birth and that the affiant afterwards knew her quite well, that she was said to be a full Cherokee Indian and that all of the Richardsons have the peculiar Indian appearance and this affiant is satisfied that they are all of Indian blood and so testifies.
W.K.A. William”
Source: The National Archives
On the right Eliza Louisa Richardson (1822-?) and her niece Emily Lucretia Richardson (1840-?). Eliza Louisa Richardson was the daughter of Hardy Richardson and Dorcas Boone. This photo was submitted with the Richardson family's rejected Dawes Cherokee applications in 1898. Source: The National Archives
On the right Eliza Louisa Richardson (1828-1908) and on the left her niece Emily Lucretia Richardson (1840-before 1920). Eliza Louisa Richardson was the daughter of Hardy Richardson and Dorcas Boone. This photo was submitted with the Richardson family’s rejected Cherokee Dawes applications in 1896. Descendants are today part of the Haliwa-Saponi tribe in Halifax/Warren Counties.
Source: The National Archives

2. Caroline Boone born about 1810 was unwed and had one son named William Boone. In William Boone’s Dawes application, which can be found fully transcribed on researcher Deloris Williams’ website here, he verified that his mother Caroline was Dorcas’ sister. From William Boone’s 1896 rejected Dawes application, it states:

Your petitioner WM. BOONE the undersigned respectfully states that he is a Cherokee Indian by blood and asks to be enrolled as a member of the Cherokee Nation of Indians in the Indian Territory.
That he derives his Indian blood from his grandfather LEWIS BOONE who was the father of CAROLINE BOONE, who was the mother of petitioner. CAROLINE BOONE and DARCUS RICHARDSON were sisters and both were Cherokee Indians by blood.

William Elias Boone (1890-1964) was the son of William Bone and Sallie Ann RIchardson. His grandmother was Carolina Boone and his great-grandfather was Lewis Boone. He is pictured here with his sister-in-law Annie Ruth Richardson. Source: Tony Copeland
William Elias Boone (1890-1964) was the son of William Boone and Sallie Ann Richardson. His grandmother was Carolina Boone and his great-grandfather was Lewis Boone. William Elias Boone is listed in his father William Boone’s rejected Dawes application and additional information on him can be found on Deloris Williams’ website here. He is pictured here with his sister-in-law Annie Ruth Richardson. Their family is from the Haliwa-Saponi tribe in Halifax/Warren Counties.
Source: Tony Copeland

3. William Boone was born about 1790 and was most likely a son of Lewis Boon though I’d like additional confirmation of their relationship. William’s descendants ofter intermarried with the descendants of Hardy Richardson and Dorcas Boone. Wife Fanny’s maiden name is unknown.

Philmore Boone (1876-1963) was the son of Spencer Boone and Sarah Susan Richardson. His grandfather was Leonard Boone, his great-grandfather was William Boone and 2nd great-grandfather was Lewis Boone. He is pictured with his wife Gertie Eatma in Nash County, NC. Source: Ancestry, Username: toakley109
Philmore Boone (1876-1963) was the son of Spencer Boone and Sarah Susan Richardson. His grandfather was Leonard Boone, his great-grandfather was William Boone and 2nd great-grandfather was Lewis Boone. He is pictured with his wife Gertie Eatma in Nash County, NC.
Source: Ancestry, Username: toakley109

Arthur Boon (1773-?)

Patt Boon’s son Arthur Boon was born around 1773 and like his brother Lewis Boone, he was also bound out in 1774 in Bertie County. In the 1790 census, Arthur Boon was recorded in Hertford County, head of a household of 6 “Free colored persons”. I cannot locate him in the census again until the 1840 census where he was recorded living alone in Northampton County, head of his own household of 1 free colored male. However directly under Arthur Boon’s name in the 1840 census, is his probable daughter Rebecca Boon (born 1805). This is the Rebecca Boon who is the progenitor of the Granville County Boon family. Arthur most likely had other children but but I do not have them identified at this time.

In the 1840 census for Northampton County, Arthur Boon is listed in the census directly next to his probable daughter Rebecca Boon. Source: 1840; Census Place: Northampton, North Carolina; Roll: 366; Page: 111; Image: 229; Family History Library Film: 0018096
In the 1840 census for Northampton County, Arthur Boon is listed in the census directly next to his probable daughter Rebecca Boon.
Source: 1840; Census Place: Northampton, North Carolina; Roll: 366; Page: 111; Image: 229; Family History Library Film: 0018096

The Norfolk, VA origins of the Anderson Family of Granville County

In this blog post I will chronicle the Native American/”free colored” Anderson family from their origins in Norfolk, VA to their relocation in Granville County. The origins of the Anderson family are interconnected to the Nansemond Indian Bass family. If you have not already, please read my blog entry on the Basses to familiarize yourself with that history.

Unlike the vast majority of the family lineages of Native Americans in Granville County who were born free and always free, the Andersons were once enslaved. So before I delve into the Anderson family, I’ll need to first discuss their former slave owner – John Fulcher. Much of the source material for this blog entry comes from the excellent research provided by Fulcher descendant Ellen Fulcher Cloud on her website that can be found here. I also drew from Paul Heinegg’s research on the Andersons.

John Fulcher (1666-1712) was born to English colonist Captain Thomas Fulcher and Mary Sibsey (daughter of Captain John Sibsey) of Norfolk County, VA. By the 1660s, Thomas Fulcher owned land in Lower Norfolk County called “Manor Plantation” that he inherited from his father-in-law John Sibsey. Both the Fulcher and Sibsey families were prosperous and held high status. Captain John Sibsey was a member of the House of Burgesses and Captain Thomas Fulcher was a Sheriff. Upon Thomas’ death, his son John Fulcher inherited “Manor Plantation”. John was married to Ruth Woodhouse and had one son with her but by 1691, the couple was divorced. This can be seen in a 1691 court order in which John Fulcher was held to financially assist his ex-wife Ruth and their son. So when John Fulcher passed away in 1712, it was probably no surprise that he did not leave any of his property to his ex wife and son. However what he did in addition to not leaving his family any property, was unconventional for the time.

In his 1712 will, John Fulcher requested that all of his slaves be freed and he gave them property to live on, specifically 640 acres on Sewall’s Point in Norfolk County. Imagine what a stir this must have caused. Not only did Fulcher not leave anything to his own family, but he freed his slaves and instead gave them property. Most of Fulcher’s property including “Manor Plantation” went to his “godson” Lewis Conner who also served as executor of the estate.

Map of the Elizabeth River in what was then Lower Norfolk County, VA. Shown are approximate locations of Captain John Sibsey's land holdings including "Manor Plantation" which his grandson John Fulcher inherited. Also shown is the land that John Fulcher granted to the freed Anderson family. Edward Bass' land purchase from John Fulcher is also shown. Source: Sir Robert Barrie Papers, Rubenstein Library, Duke University
Map of the Elizabeth River in what was then Lower Norfolk County, VA. Shown are approximate locations of Captain John Sibsey’s land holdings including “Manor Plantation” which his grandson John Fulcher inherited. Also shown is the land that John Fulcher granted to the freed Anderson family. Several members of the Anderson family continued living in the area in the proceeding decades after John Fulcher’s death. Edward Bass’ land purchase from John Fulcher is also shown.
Source: Sir Robert Barrie Papers, Rubenstein Library, Duke University

The freeing of John Fulcher’s slaves caused so much of a stir that the General Assembly the following year recommended outlawing the manumission of slaves because they feared that freed slaves would help organize slave revolts – something the colonists were especially paranoid about. The names of the slaves freed in Fulcher’s will were:  “Robert Richards, Maria Richards, Kate Anderson, Hester Anderson, Betty Anderson, Lewis Anderson, Sarah Anderson and children Peter Anderson, George Anderson, Dinah Anderson, Nedd Anderson, Rachell Anderson, Mingo Anderson, Tony Anderson, and Susan Anderson.”

As you can see the surname of the freed slaves was Anderson with two freed slaves having the Richards surname. They did not take the surname of their most immediate former slave owner John Fulcher, and not all the slaves had the same last name. I do not know how Fulcher’s freed slaves acquired these surnames.

Though the colonial government could not prevent the manumission of Fulcher’s slaves, estate executor Lewis Conner did just about everything in his power to remove the Anderson family to North Carolina. The Sewall’s Point land that the Andersons were granted was in the heart of the British colony and was likely highly desired by many individuals including Lewis Conner. In 1715, Conner swapped the Anderson family’s land in Norfolk County for 646 acres of land on Welsh’s Creek in Chowan County, NC (modern Martin and Washington Counties). The Andersons refused to take possession of this land in North Carolina and continued living in Norfolk County. One apparent freed slave of Fulcher’s named James (no last name given) sold his share of the Sewall’s Point land to Lewis Conner in 1715. None of the freed slaves named in Fulcher’s will had the first name James so I’m unsure exactly who this person was but he was certainly formerly  enslaved by Fulcher.

Over the next several years, there were a number of lawsuits between Lewis Conner and the Anderson family regarding the land and Conner’s role as executor of the estate, but the Anderson family still continued living in Norfolk County. This is evident in a 1718 land deed which describes a path leading to Sowell’s (Sewall’s) Point where “free negroes” resided. And throughout the 1730s and into the 1750s, numerous members of the freed Anderson family and their descendants were counted in tax lists in Tanner’s Creek (located next to Sewall’s Point) in Norfolk County. For these Andersons that remained in Virginia, I have not traced their descendants to the present so I cannot say for certain what happened to them but they may still live in the area. However a couple of Andersons did move to North Carolina and these are the Andersons who intermarried with the Nansemond Indian Basses and became part of Granville County’s Native American community.

Back when John Fulcher was still living in 1699, he sold 15 acres of his land on the Western Branch of the Elizabeth River to Edward Bass. By 1720, Edward Bass and his brother John bass had moved to Chowan County, NC (modern Gates County) and many of their descendants married members of the Anderson family. Below is a summary of the Andersons who moved to North Carolina:

1. Lewis Anderson, born 1690. Freed in 1712, he was married to Katherine Bass, daughter of Fulcher’s neighbor Edward Bass.  He was taxed in Tanner’s Creek, Norfolk County in 1730 and 1731. Lewis and his wife inherited land in Northampton County, NC in 1748 from his father-in-law Edward Bass which the couple later sold in 1757. It is not known if Lewis Anderson ever made it to Granville County or if he had any descendants.

2. George Anderson, born 1696. Freed in 1712 and by the 1730s, George owned land in Bertie County (modern Northampton County). By 1746, George sold his Northampton County land and was living in Granville County. George’s wife Mary’s maiden name is unknown, but George’s mistress with whom he fathered  a child with was Lovey Bass, niece of Edward Bass (daughter of John Bass). I think it is very probable that George’s wife Mary was a Bass. George purchased land from Edward Bass’ brother John Bass in 1738 in Bertie County (modern Northampton County). John Bass did have a daughter named Mary and it is unknown what happened to her but she was alive to be named in her father’s will in 1732. George enlisted in Col. William Eaton’s regiment which I blogged about previously here. Also George’s daughter Ruth Anderson was a servant in Eaton’s household in 1755 when her child was bound to him

3. Lewis Anderson, born 1713. He was born after the Anderson slaves were freed, so he was never enslaved. Lewis is thought to be the son of Elizabeth Anderson who was freed in Fulcher’s will. However this is not definite and more verification is needed. Lewis is the direct ancestor of the vast majority of the Native American/”free colored” Andersons of Granville County because his descendants continued marrying into the Bass, Evans, Taborn, Pettiford, Tyler, Mitchell, Howell and Chavis families. Lewis was married to Sarah Bass, daughter of Edward Bass’ brother John Bass. He owned land in Bertie County (modern Northampton County) in the 1730s that his wife inherited from her father. Lewis was in Granville County by 1746 and enlisted in Col. William Eaton’s regiment which I blogged about here.

As you can see, the three Anderson men who moved to North Carolina had Bass spouses/partners including the two who are confirmed to have moved to Granville. And when you take into consideration the early North Carolina land purchases of brothers John Bass and Edward Bass, it appears those Anderson men married into the Bass family and thus followed them into North Carolina.

But who exactly were the freed Andersons? And if they have a Native American tribal origin, what is it? The original Andersons who were enslaved were almost certainly of African heritage but I think it is very likely they were mixed Native American. Their very close relationship with the Nansemond Bass family and their association with Indian trader Col. William Eaton are strong indicators that they also had a Native lineage. However slavery can very much obscure the ethnic origins of those who were enslaved and until we know exactly how and where John Fulcher acquired his slaves, I can only really speculate on the Anderson’s origins. If John Fulcher did inherit his slaves, it seems likely they came from his maternal grandfather Captain John Sibsey. Sibsey’s 1652 Norfolk County will does not make any specific mention of slaves and simply mentions property. But we know John Sibsey owned slaves because Mary Sibsey’s first husband Richard Conquest complained to the courts in 1652 that he was being withheld a slave that was due to him from his father-in-law.

Whatever their exact origin may have been, the Andersons who intermarried with the Nansemond Basses, who moved to Granville County and who continued intermarrying with the Native American/”free colored” families living there, were full fledged members of the community.

The Andersons have remained one of the largest families in the community as can be seen in the Granville County census records. In 1800 there were 9 Anderson head of households and in 1840 there were 15 Anderson head of households. In the 1850 census which was the first census in which every household member was listed there were 112 Andersons. In 1900 there were 54 Andersons and in 1940 there were 66 Andersons. And of course these numbers do not reflect Anderson women who were married as well as Anderson descendants who no longer carried the Anderson surname.

Below are some pictures of Granville County Andersons:

Adeline Jane Howell (born 1858). Daughter of Alexander
Adeline Jane Howell (1858 – 1900/1910). Daughter of Alexander “Doc” Howell and Betsy Ann Anderson. Married to Dennis Hedgepeth. Resident of Fishing Creek township, Granville County and later moved to Nash County.
Source: Ancestry, Username: rthomas1973
Nancy Howell (1871-1947). Daughter of Junius Thomas Howell and Pantheyer Brandon. Granddaughter of Alexander "Doc" Howell and Betsy Ann Anderson. Married to Herbert Junius Anderson and later married to Asa Howell. Nancy was a lifelong resident of Fishing Creek, Granville County. Source: Ancestry, Username: rthomas1973
Nancy Howell (1871-1947). Daughter of Junius Thomas Howell and Pantheyer Brandon. Granddaughter of Alexander “Doc” Howell and Betsy Ann Anderson. Married to Herbert Junius Anderson and later married to Asa Howell. Nancy was a lifelong resident of Fishing Creek, Granville County.
Source: Ancestry, Username: rthomas1973
Lillian Anderson (1882-1932). Daughter of Thomas Anderson and Sarah Tyler. Married to Joseph Walter Scott. Resident of Granville and Vance Counties.  Source: Ancestry, Username: waniehol
Lillian Anderson (1882-1932). Daughter of Thomas Anderson and Sarah Tyler. Married to Joseph Walter Scott. Resident of Granville and Vance Counties.
Source: Ancestry, Username: waniehol
Sampson Anderson (1844-1906) with wife Jane Anderson (1852-1923) and son Robert F Anderson (1872-1914). Sampson was the son of Henry Anderson and Nancy Richardson. Jane was the daughter of Mark and Crecy Anderson. The family lived in Granville and Wake Counties and relocated to Washington, D.C. in their later years.  Source: Ancestry, Username: rewinder11
Sampson Anderson (1844-1906) with wife Jane Anderson (1852-1923) and son Robert F Anderson (1872-1914). Sampson was the son of Henry Anderson and Nancy Richardson. Jane was the daughter of Mark and Crecy Anderson. The family lived in Granville and Wake Counties and relocated to Washington, D.C. in their later years.
Source: Ancestry, Username: rewinder11
Charles Mangum (1871-1944). Son of Junius Mangum and Martha Anderson. Charles lived in Granville County and occasionally lived in neighboring counties of Mecklenburg Co, VA and Wake Co, NC.  Source: Ancesstry, Username: dahndelora
Charles Mangum (1871-1944). Son of Junius Mangum and Martha Anderson. Charles lived in Granville County and occasionally lived in neighboring counties of Mecklenburg Co, VA and Wake Co, NC.
Source: Ancesstry, Username: dahndelora
John Anderson (1832-1916). I have not verified John's parents but he was first married to Margaret Parker and second married to Mary Mayo. By 1863, he relocated his family from Granville County to Ohio. Source: Christopher Bradley Cooper
John Anderson (1832-1916). I have not verified John’s parents but he was first married to Margaret Parker and second married to Mary Mayo. By 1863, he relocated his family from Granville County to Ohio.
Source: Christopher Bradley Cooper
One of the most nationally known people to come out of the Native American community in Granville is retired NFL player Roger Anderson. Roger played college football at Virginia Union and professional football with the New York Giants. Roger was inducted into the Sports Hall of Fame at Mary Potter High School in Granville County. His son Keith Anderson is a member of the Red Crooked Sky American Indian Dance Troupe a well known person on the pow wow circuit.
One of the most nationally known people to come out of the Native American community in Granville is retired NFL player Roger Anderson. Born in 1942 to the Native American Granville County Anderson, Evans, Chavis, Taborn, and Bass and still living, Roger played college football at Virginia Union and professional football with the New York Giants. Roger was inducted into the Sports Hall of Fame at Mary Potter High School in Granville County. His son Keith Anderson is a member of the Red Crooked Sky American Indian Dance Troupe and is a well recognized and beloved person on the pow wow circuit.

The Nansemond Indian Bass Family of Granville

The Bass family in Granville is one of the larger Native American families in the county. Just about all “core” surnames of the Native community in Granville have intermarried with the Basses. Thankfully, the Bass family has a very well documented tribal origin with the Nansemond tribe in Virginia. Additionally, there are Bass descendants found in several state recognized tribes in North Carolina including: Haliwa-Saponi, Meherrin, Occaneechi-Saponi, and Lumbee.


Nansemond Tribal Origin

Untitled presentation (2)
Family Tree of the first generations of Basses. John Bass(e), a colonist, married Elizabeth, daughter of the chief of the Nansemond tribe. This blog post focuses on their grandsons Edward Bass and John Bass who moved to North Carolina. © Kianga Lucas

Much of the source material for this blog entry comes from Lars Adams’ research on the Basses. Not only is he a researcher, but he is also a descendant of the Bass family and has invested a lot of time in correcting past genealogical mistakes. I also drew from Paul Heinegg’s research on the Bass family.

The Native American branch of the British Bass family begins with the marriage in 1638 of John Bass(e) an English colonist to Elizabeth, baptized daughter of the chief of the Nansemond tribe. They are my 10th great-grandparents. Their marriage was recorded in the Bass family bible that has survived to the present. There have been incorrect transcriptions of this marriage record that falsely state that Elizabeth’s name was “Keziah Elizabeth Tucker” and that her father was “Robin the elder”. However as you can clearly read from the actual original marriage record, her name is simply “Elizabeth” and her father’s name is not mentioned at all. So if you are a Bass descendant or researcher, please check your family tree to make sure you have the correct information. Below is an image of the marriage:

Bass Family Bible transcription:
Bass Family Bible transcription:
“John Basse married ye dafter of ye King of ye Nansemond Nation by name Elizabeth in Holy Baptizm and in Holy Matrimonie ye 14th day of August in ye yeare of Our Blessed Lord 1638 Dyed 1699 A.D.”

The Nansemond tribe is an Algonquian speaking tribe of the Powhatan Confederacy from the tidewater Virginia area that is today the modern city of Suffolk. As coastal people they were impacted very early on by European colonization. Here is a map of sub-tribes of the Powhatan Confederacy:

Map of the Powhatan Confederacy. The Nansemond Tribe is circled in red. Source: Helen Rountree
Map of the Powhatan Confederacy. The Nansemond Tribe is circled in red.
Source: Helen Rountree

John Bass and Elizabeth had several children including a son named William Bass (1654-1741) who appears to be the most well documented. William Bass was married to a woman named Catherine Lanier and they continued living in the area that was then Norfolk County, VA and is today Chesapeake, VA. William Bass Sr and Catherine Lanier had the following children:

  • Edward Bass b. 19 Oct 1672
  • John Bass b. 4 Dec 1673
  • Keziah Bass b. 30 Oct 1675
  • William Bass b. 28 Oct 1676
  • Joseph Bass b. 21 Dec 1678
  • Mary Bass b. 15 Jun 1681
  • Thomas Bass b. 13 Nov 1687

Four of his sons: Edward, John, William, and Thomas are known to have had children and living descendants today. Sons William Bass Jr (1676 – 1761) and Thomas Bass (1687-?) and their descendants primarily remained in the Norfolk Co, VA area with some descendants moving a very short distance across the state line into Camden Co, NC and neighboring counties. Descendants of the Basses who remained in the Norfolk area make up the core membership of the state recognized Nansemond Tribe. These Basses commonly intermarried with other FPOC families such as: Hall, Perkins, Price, Archer, Newton, and Nickens.

On the other hand, sons Edward Bass (1672 – 1750) and John Bass (1673- 1732) relocated to North Carolina and their descendants I will document in the following sections. The descendants of both men can be found in many Native American communities throughout North Carolina, including Granville.

William Bass Sr in 1726/1727 received a certificate from the Norfolk Co, VA court stating that:

William Bass, Senr. & … his sons Wm. Bass, Thomas Bass and Joseph Bass, & spinster daughter Mary Bass are persons of English and Nansemun Indian descent with no Admixture of negor, Ethipopic blood

William’s sons Edward and John Bass are not included in this certificate because they had already relocated to North Carolina several years prior.

Later William’s son William Bass Jr (1676-1761) received a similar certificate in 1742 that read:

William Bass, the Bearer, tall, swarthy, dark eyes, weight abt. 13 stone, scar on back of left hand, is of English & Indian descent with no admixture of negro blood, numbered as a Nansemun by his own Choosing. The sd. Bass dwells in this County and hath a good name for his industry and honesty.

Clearly the Bass family early on was attempting to document and establish their Nansemond Indian identity and in the eyes of the colony, this meant also not having any “negro admixture”.

Augustus Bass sitting on the far left with other members of his family in Norfolk County, VA (modern Chesapeake). Augustus Bass is a descendant of William Bass Jr (167 ), whose family remained in Virginia.
Augustus Bass sitting on the far left with other members of his family in Norfolk County, VA (modern Chesapeake).
Augustus Bass is a descendant of William Bass Jr (1676-1761), whose family remained in Virginia.

William Bass Sr, wrote a will on 1 Oct 1740 which was proved on 17 Sep 1742 in Norfolk Co. In the will, William gives to his sons William, Edward and Thomas only one shilling each. He gave to his son Joseph Bass, his “waring cloaths” and left his land and anything else to his daughter Mary in the hopes that she salvage what is left. Clearly, William was not in good financial standing at the time of his death. Son John Bass (1673-1732) is not named in the will because he predeceased his father. This is also true for William’s daughter Keziah Bass who died in 1704.

William Bass will
This is the original handwritten will of William Bass (1654-1741). Source: Virginia, Wills and Probate Records, 1652-1983; Norfolk; Original Wills, 1693; page 427.

 

William Bass will abstract
Transcription of the will of William Bass dated 1 Oct 1740 and proved on 17 Sep 1742 in Norfolk Co, VA

Edward Bass and John Bass Move to North Carolina

From here our discussion focuses on the two brothers Edward Bass (1672-1750) and John Bass (1673-1732) who moved to North Carolina. Let’s first start with Edward Bass. Edward Bass was named in his father William Bass’ 1740 will in which he only inherited one shilling. Edward’s wife was Lovewell but her maiden name has not been confirmed and so more research is needed to properly identify exactly who she is. Edward is well documented as a land owner in Norfolk County, VA (modern Chesapeake, VA) and purchased land from John Fulcher in 1699. Fulcher’s will in 1712, freed the Anderson family that would both intermarry and move with the Basses into North Carolina. You can read more about John Fulcher and the Anderson family here. Edward Bass makes numerous appearances in the Norfolk Co court records up through 1715.

By 1720, Edward Bass owned land around the Horsepool Swamp in Chowan County (modern Gates County), North Carolina. In that land transaction, he is called “Edward Bass of Norfolk County, Virginia, Parish of Elizabeth”, so we know it is our same Edward Bass. A couple of years later in 1723 he started purchasing tracts of land along Urahaw Swamp in what was then Bertie County and what is today Northampton County, NC. Fortunately, Edward left a Northampton County will which named his children.

All of Edward Bass’ children moved to Granville County and so his descendants are well represented in the Granville community. And it is important to note that Edward Bass’ children and descendants intermarried quite frequently with the freed Anderson family, so much so, that it’s nearly impossible to separate the two families. Though all of Edward Bass’ children inherited a parcel of his Northampton Co. land, they all eventually sold off their shares when they moved to Granville Co. Edward’s son Benjamin Bass (1722-1802) still owned a parcel of his father’s Northampton Co land in 1784, when he and his wife Mary eventually sold it off. Once Edward Bass’ children arrived in Granville, they became neighbors and intermarried with the already established Chavis, Harris, Pettiford, Hawley, Goins, and Mitchell families and became apart of the community.

 

The descendants of Edward Bass’ brother John Bass (1673-1732) are also among the Granville Native Americans, but they are not as numerous as Edward’s. John Bass was first married to Love Harris. A record of their marriage still exists:

John Bass and Love Harris marriage recorded in Perquimans County, NC. “John BAS and Love HARRIS was Married ye 8th day of Janewary 1696 both of Nanse Mum County and Nanse Mum Parresh by Mager Samuel SWANN Esqr.”
John Bass and Love Harris marriage recorded in Perquimans County, NC.
“John BAS and Love HARRIS was Married ye 8th day of Janewary 1696 both of Nanse Mum County and Nanse Mum Parresh by Mager Samuel SWANN Esqr.”

As researcher Lars Adams point out, despite John Bass and Love Harris both being residents of Nansemond County, VA they married in North Carolina. John Bass was Indian and Love Harris was white and during this time, VA passed strict laws forbidding interracial marriages. So they likely married in North Carolina where the laws were more lenient.

John Bass purchased land that adjoined his brother Edward Bass’ land in Horsepool Swamp in Chowan Co (now Gates Co), NC in 1720/1721. This shows the two brothers moved together and remained close in North Carolina. And just like his brother Edward, John Bass accumulated a lot of land that adjoined his brother’s along Urahaw Swamp in what was then Bertie County, and now Northampton County starting in the early 1720s. John Bass died young in 1732. Fortunately he also left a Northampton County will which divided his Urahaw Swamp land among his children.

It should be noted that John Bass’ will makes mention of his widow Mary, and in it, John leaves his plantation to her as gift for “bringing up my small children”. Since we have an earlier marriage record for John Bass to Love Harris, this would mean that Love died sometime earlier, and John Bass remarried Mary. The will seems to indicate that Mary helped raise the children that John Bass had with his previous wife. The will also confirms that Edward Bass and John Bass were siblings because in it, John Bass refers to his own land as being adjacent to his brother Edward Bass.

Some of John Bass’ children remained in Northampton County and neighboring/nearby counties including Bertie, Edgecombe, Nash and Halifax. Other children moved to other parts of the state. For example, John Bass’ grandson Frederick Bass (b. 1750)  moved to Anson Co and some his descendants can be found among the Lumbee Tribe in Robeson Co.

Several of John Bass’ children did join Edward Bass’ children in their relocation to Granville Co. They were Sarah Bass b. 1704, William Bass b. 1712, and Lovey Bass b. 1720. Sarah Bass b. 1704 was the wife of Lewis Anderson (1713-1785), of the freed Anderson family of Norfolk Co, so that explains why she moved to Granville. Lovey Bass b. 1712 was not married but had a partner named George Anderson (1696-1771) who was also of the Anderson family. The wife of William Bass b. 1712  is unknown but I wonder if she was also an Anderson. Just like Edward Bass’ children, John Bass’ children who moved to Granville married into and became a part of the Native community.

****Mary Bass (1757-1844) and her husband  Benjamin Richardson (1750-1809) are my 5th great-grandparents and are the main progenitors of the state recognized Haliwa-Saponi tribe. It had been assumed that Mary Bass was the same Mary Bass who was the daughter of Thomas Bass and Thomasine Bunch of Bertie Co. Thomas Bass was a grandson of John Bass (1673-1732). However I no longer believe this to be true. A closer examination of the records as well as DNA cousin matches, shows Mary Bass to have a closer relationship with the Edward Bass (1672-1750) branch of the Bass family. Specifically, I’m looking into Mary Bass being the daughter of either Benjamin Bass (1722-1802) or perhaps Edward Bass Jr (1728-1800) of Granville Co. Both men were sons of Edward Bass (1672-1750). I will update this blog post when I can confirm my research. Please check back again later. ****

This map shows the movement of brothers Edward and John Bass from their Nansemond homeland in Virginia to North Carolina. All of Edward Bass' children and three of John Bass' children moved and settled in Granville County by the 1750s. © Kianga Lucas
This map shows the movement of brothers Edward Bass (1672-1750) and John Bass (1673-1732) from their Nansemond homeland in Virginia to North Carolina. This map shows that the brothers moved together from Norfolk, to Horspool Swamp, and then to Urahaw Swamp together. All of Edward Bass’ children and three of John Bass’ children moved and settled in Granville County by the 1750s.
© Kianga Lucas

 


A Closer Look at Urahaw Swamp and Neighboring Tribes

The fact that brothers Edward Bass and John Bass moved to North Carolina at the same time and bought adjoining land deserves further examination. The Urahaw Swamp land that was first purchased in 1722/1723 is of particular interest because Bartholomew Chavis (1685-1750) also owned land along Urahaw Swamp. Bartholomew was the father of original Granville County land owner William Chavis (1709-1777) whose large land tract provided the land base for the Native American community in Granville. The earliest records for Bartholomew are found in Henrico and Surry County, VA. By 1719/1720 he was living in North Carolina and started purchasing land along Urahaw Swamp just 2-3 years before the Bass brothers purchased land there.

Map of the southern portion of Northampton County, NC. I circled Urahaw Swamp which runs off of Potecasi Creek which I also circled. Potcesai Creek enters Northampton from the eastern border with Hertford. Urahaw Swamp breaks off from Potecasi and runs westward an ends on the northern side of the Roanake River along the Halifax County border. Source: http://dc.lib.unc.edu/cdm/singleitem/collection/ncmaps/id/8072/rec/18
Map of the southern portion of Northampton County, NC. I circled Urahaw Swamp which runs off of Potecasi Creek which I also circled. Potecasi Creek enters Northampton from the eastern border with Hertford. Urahaw Swamp breaks off from Potecasi and runs westward and ends on the northern side of the Roanake River along the Halifax County border.
Source: http://dc.lib.unc.edu/cdm/singleitem/collection/ncmaps/id/8072/rec/18

The Gibson family is another Native American family who are relevant to this discussion. William Chavis’ wife was Frances Gibson. Her brother John Gibson who lived nearby, was a witness to a 1728 land purchase along Urahaw Swamp by Edward Bass (1672-1750). Two of John Gibson’s sons – George Gibson and Charles Gibson moved to Granville in 1750 but this was the far southwestern part of the county that just two years later became Orange County. George and Charles Gibson did not stay in Orange County for along and moved around quite a bit with their descendants eventually leaving the state. William Chavis (1709-1777) also owned some land in Orange County and perhaps that is connected to George and Charles Gibson’s temporary residence there. Despite inheriting his father’s Northampton County land along the Roanake River in 1750, William Chavis (1709-1777) continued to live in Granville County. William even continued to have additional land transactions in Northampton County but Granville was his primary residence as indicated in tax records. So with William Chavis being the first from Urahaw Swamp to relocate to Granville, it appears the Bass/Anderson family followed him.

I find it interesting that a Nottoway Indian named George Skipper b. 1685 was documented through land transactions, living along Urahaw Swamp in the 1720s (See Heinegg here). This is the exact same time that the Chavis, Gibson, Bass, and Anderson families lived along Urahaw Swamp. And when we take a look at the Moseley map of 1733, we see both the Meherrin and the Nansemond Indians living in close proximity to Urahaw Swamp in Northampton Co. The Nottoway and Meherrin are part of the same Iroquois speaking confederacy. And some of the Nansemond lived with the Nottoway. This was an area where a number of tribes took refuge with one another, and this historical context is important for understanding Urahaw Swamp and the cluster of mixed race Native American families who resided there.

Mosely Map 1733
Zoomed in portion of the Moseley Map of 1733. Urahaw Swamp is shown west of the Nansemond and Meherrin tribes which are circled. Source: http://ncpedia.org/moseley-manuscript-map

 

So why did some Nansemond Indians leave VA and head into Iroquois/Tuscarora and Saponi territory and ultimately end up marrying into both tribes? The Basses belonged to the so-called “Christianized-Nansemond” as explained by scholar Helen Rountree, and they were never granted a reservation like other Powhatan tribes (Pamunkey, Mattaponi, Gingaskin, etc). The “traditional” Nansemond did live on a reservation in Southampton County and lived with the Nottoway Tribe. By 1792 they sold off their remaining reservation land.

Map showing the location of the
Map showing the location of the “Christianized Nansemond” that the Bass family belonged to.
Source: Helen Rountree

Without a bordered, recognized land base, it seems the Basses were pushed out of VA as a result of encroachment by European colonists. North Carolina at that time was still the “frontier” and that is where the Basses decided to make their home. The Basses were not the only family from a Powhatan tribe that made this journey. I suspect a number of Native American families from North Carolina that have tidewater Virginia roots were Powhatan tribal people who were pushed out and ended up marrying into other tribal communities.


The Basses from Granville County

So to summarize: all of the children of Edward Bass (1672-1750) and three of the children of John Bass (1673-1732) relocated to Granville County. Edward Bass and John Bass were brothers, and the grandsons of John Bass(e) an English colonist and his Nansemond Indian wife Elizabeth.

The Bass family continued living and thriving in Granville County as can be seen from census records. In 1800, there were 14 Bass heads of households, in 1810: 10 heads of household, in 1820: 7 heads of household, in 1830: 6 heads of household, and in 1840: 6 heads of household. In the 1850 census where every household member is named for the first time, there were approximately 24 Basses in Granville, and in 1860 there were approximately 25 Basses in Granville. By the 1940 census which is the last publicly available census, there were approximately 100 Basses in Granville. These numbers of course do not reflect female Basses whose names changed due to marriage, nor their descendants.

Untitled presentation (1)
Family Tree showing the immediate family of Benjamin Bass (1722-1802), great-grandson of John Bass(e) and Elizabeth the Nansemond. Because neither a will or estate records have been located for Benjamin Bass, there are unanswered questions as to how many children he had. In addition, numerous children were bound out to Benjamin Bass. © Kianga Lucas
Untitled presentation
Family Tree showing the immediate family of Edward Bass Jr (1728-1800), great-grandson of John Bass(e) and Elizabeth the Nansemond. Edward Bass left a will which named his children. In the Granville tax lists, he is consistently shown with his wife Tamer so I feel confident that she was the mother to all of his children. © Kianga Lucas

Two of Edward Bass’ sons: Benjamin Bass (b. 1722) and Edward Bass Jr (b. 1728) are primarily responsible for the large number of Basses in Granville Co as well as those who continued to head further west into Person, Orange, Caswell, Alamance, Chatham, and Guilford Counties, so you will find a high number of their living descendants today.

Alonzo Bass (1859-1941). Source: Ancestry, User: randymaultsby
Alonzo Bass (1859-1941). Son of William Bass and Sarah Evans. 
Source: Ancestry, User: randymaultsby
William Brammer Bass (1874-1962) Source: Ancestry, User: Derika73
William Brammer Bass (1874-1962). Son of William Bass and Sarah Evans
Source: Ancestry, User: Derika73
Garland Bryant Bass (1879-1935). Source: Ancestry, User: randymaultsby
Garland Bryant Bass (1879-1935). Son of William Bass and Sarah Evans
Source: Ancestry, User: randymaultsby

The Bass lineage of the three brothers pictured above:

William Bass; Cullen Bass; Prudence Bass; Edward Bass Jr; Edward Bass Sr; William Bass Sr; John Bass(e) the English colonist and Elizabeth daughter of the Nansemond chief.

Not only do the three Bass brothers descend from the Bass family, they are descendants of the Granville County Evans, Anderson, Day, and Mayo families. This particular branch of the Bass family moved around neighboring Granville, Person, and Orange counties.

Alonzo Bass’ grandson Joel Bass (1929-2012) was former chief of the Eno-Occaneechi Tribe (precursor to the state recognized Occaneechi-Saponi tribe). On Joel’s mother’s side he is descended from the Granville County Day, Stewart, Cousins and yes the Bass family again from the Edward Bass Sr line.

Joel Bass (1929-2012). Son of Buck Bass and Minnie Day. Source: Richard Haithcock
Joel Bass (1929-2012). Son of Buck Bass and Minnie Day and grandson of Alonzo Bass pictured above.
Source: Richard Haithcock
Joel Bass as a young man. Source: Ancestry, User: randymaultsby
Joel Bass as a young man.
Source: Ancestry, User: randymaultsby
Alford Pettiford born 1877 Resident of Fishing Creek, Granville County, NC. Son of James Pettiford and Frances Brandon. Source: Ancestry, Username: rdaye
Alford Pettiford born 1877
Resident of Fishing Creek, Granville County, NC.
His parents were James Pettiford and Frances Brandon.
Source: Ancestry, Username: rdaye

Alford Pettiford is another Bass descendant and in fact has multiple Bass lines that trace back to both brothers Edward Bass (1672-1750) and John Bass (1673-1732).  One of his Bass lineages is as follows:

Alford Pettiford; James Pettiford; William Pettiford; Dicey Bass; Nathan Bass; Lovey Bass; John Bass; William Bass; John Bass(e) the English colonist and Elizabeth daughter of the Nansemond chief.

Cappie Frances Anderson (1882-1947). Cappie was a resident of Fishing Creek, Granville County, North Carolina. Her parents were James Anderson and Emma Taborn. Source: Ancestry, Username: rdaye
Cappie Frances Anderson (1882-1947). Cappie was a resident of Fishing Creek, Granville County, North Carolina. Her parents were James Anderson and Emma Taborn.
Source: Ancestry, Username: rdaye

Cappie Frances Anderson also has multiple Bass lineages going back to both brothers Edward Bass (1672-1750) and John Bass (1673-1732). One of her Bass lineages is as follows:

Cappie Anderson; James Anderson; Winnie Anderson; Henry Anderson; Rhody Anderson; Winnie Bass; Benjamin Bass; Edward Bass; William Bass; John Bass(e) the English colonist and Elizabeth daughter of the Nansemond chief.