Tag Archives: Curtis

Freeman Howell – Ancestor of the Native American Howells of Granville, Orange, Person, and Alamance Counties

This is a special blog post for me because Freeman Howell (1777-1870) was my 4th great-grandfather. He was also the progenitor of all of the Native American/”free colored” Howells living in Granville, Orange, Person, and Alamance Cos so it is important to correctly identify all of his descendants. Freeman Howell’s descendants married into most of the Native families in and around Granville, including: Pettiford, Anderson, Evans, Curtis, Brandon, Cousins, Tyler, Day, Richardson, Goins, Bass, Chavis, Guy, Hedgepeth and more. Thus if you are also researching these families, you’ll want to keep reading.

What has recently aided me in documenting Freeman’s descendants are the new wills and probate records that are available on Ancestry.com. These records have helped me verify his family as well as add in new family members I was previously unaware of.


Who was Freeman Howell?

Freeman Howell was the son of Matthew Howell (1752-1793) and Peggy Howell (1755- after 1830, maiden name unknown) of Charlotte County, VA. I briefly discussed his father Matthew Howell and earlier Howell lineage in my blog post about the Saponi Indian cabins in Amelia (Nottoway) Co, VA. Though the Howells have Pamunkey tribal origins, this particular branch of the Howell family moved into southside VA and married into the Saponi community there.

Freeman’s father Matthew Howell died in 1793, and as a result Freeman and his siblings were bound out as apprentices in the Charlotte County courts on June 3, 1793 to William Flood (1752-1806):

On 3 June 1793 the Charlotte County court bound her (Peggy Howell) “Mulatto” children Freeman, John and Peggy Howell to William Flood

William Flood (1752-1806) was from the Native American/”free colored” Flood family and I suspect that he was Freeman Howell’s maternal uncle. Like the Howells, William Flood moved from Amelia Co, VA to Charlotte and Mecklenburg Cos, VA. Also Freeman’s brother Matthew B Howell (b. 1784) married for a second time William Flood’s daughter Mary “Polly” Flood b. 1796 which would have been a first cousin marriage – a somewhat common occurrence in the community during this time period. So this would mean that Freeman’s mother Peggy Howell was originally Peggy Flood. If I find more evidence to support this theory, I’ll be sure to update this blog post.

Freeman Howell’s niece Betsy Howell (1814-1912) relocated her family to Gallia Co, Ohio where their descendants are “core” families of the Saponi Nation of Ohio and Midwest Saponi Nation. Betsy’s son Wesley Howell (b. 1843) was a know medicine man:

Wesley Howell medicine man Source: Midwest Saponi Nation
Wesley Howell (b. 1843) great nephew of Freeman Howell, was a medicine man
Source: Midwest Saponi Nation newsletter

Over the next few years, Freeman Howell appears in the tax lists for Charlotte County. He then appears in the tax lists for neighboring Mecklenburg Co, VA. It is there that he likely marries his wife  Susan (Maiden name unknown) 1777-1870. Regrettably, I have not been able to locate their marriage record so I cannot say for certain what year they married or have confirmation of Susan’s maiden name. I have speculated in the past that Susan may have been the Susan Brandon who was the daughter of Thomas Brandon (1746-1834) and Margaret Evans/Walden (b. 1753, she used both surnames) of Mecklenburg Co, VA. Freeman Howell appears on the same tax lists as his potential father-in-law Thomas Brandon in Mecklenburg Co. He is counted in the 1820 census for Mecklenburg Co, VA, head of a household of 8 “free colored persons”. However, I am still looking for more solid documentation on Susan, so these connections aren’t solid yet.

In the 1820s, a number of Saponi families including the Howells, Brandons/Branhams, Guys, Cousins and Chavises living in Mecklenburg Co, VA moved just a couple of miles across the border to Granville Co, NC. There may have been a particular historical event that precipitated this move because I don’t think it was a coincidence that all these families moved into Granville’s Native community in the 1820s. The first records for Freeman Howell in Granville County are in 17 Jan 1824 and 2 Feb 1824, when he received $150 and a land deed from Robert Cousins (b. 1796). Robert Cousins was the brother of Freeman’s son-in-law Nelson Cousins (b. 1794). Nelson Cousins was married to Freeman’s daughter Julia Howell (1797-1870).

Freeman Howell’s household, which included his wife Susan and children, appears in the Granville County census in 1830, 1840, 1850 and 1860. By 1870, Freeman was deceased but he did not leave a will. And this is where the estate records help identify Freeman’s heirs, so let’s take a look.


Freeman Howell’s Estate Records

Lewisford A. Paschall (also known as Lunsford Paschall and L.A. Paschall), Granville County’s clerk was assigned as administrator of Freeman Howell’s estate on 19 Nov 1870. As administrator, he was responsible for selling Freeman’s assets which included 100 acres of land and any personal property. After paying off any outstanding debts, the remaining balance was to be divided among Freeman’s living heirs. On 2 Oct 1871, Freeman’s 100 acres of land was sold to his white neighbor John Greenway for $499 cash.

Lewisford A Paschall named as administrator of Freeman Howell'e estate. Source: North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998
Lewisford A Paschall named as administrator of Freeman Howell’e estate.
Source: North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998
Freeman Howell's land sold for $499 to John Greenway on October 2, 1871. Source: North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998
Freeman Howell’s land sold for $499 to John Greenway on October 2, 1871.
Source: North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998

After paying off Freeman’s debts with the $499 received for the land sale, administrator L.A. Paschall had a remaining balance of $117.17 to be divided among Freeman’s heirs. A white woman named Milly Wilkerson (1810-1879) received a judgement of $210.82 against Freeman Howell’s estate which accounted for most of Freeman’s debt. I’m unsure of Milly’s exact relationship to Freeman, but in the 1850 census she was residing in his household. Milly Wilkerson was a single woman, but she had children with Native American/”free colored” men from the community. I know one man was Burton Cousins because he paid for her “bastard bond” in Feb 1835, but maybe she was also involved with a Howell. After all the debts were paid, an additional $25.60 was paid to county clerk Calvin Betts which brought down the remaining balance further.

Each of Freeman Howell’s children received $9.45. His son James Howell received $10.08 and I’m unsure why he received slightly more money. Because Freeman Howell lived to be almost 100 years old, he outlived many of his children. So the shares for his deceased children were divided among their living heirs. For example, Freeman Howell’s son John Howell was deceased but had 11 living children, so each child received 1/11 of $9.45 which equaled 85 cents.

Some of Freeman Howell’s children signed over their shares to pay off outstanding debts, and this included the estates of some of Freeman Howell’s deceased children. For example, Freeman’s daughter Elizabeth (Howell) Fain who was still living, signed over her $9.45 to A.H. Bumpass. And the estate for Freeman Howell’s deceased son William Howell signed over his share to James Amis.

Freeman Howell's daughter Elizabeth (Howell) Fain, widow of James Fain, signed over her share to A.H. Bumpass. Source: North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998
Freeman Howell’s daughter Elizabeth (Howell) Fain, widow of James Fain, signed over her share to A.H. Bumpass.
Source: North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998

What also further complicated the distribution of Freeman Howell’s estate was that many of his heirs had relocated to other counties and to the state of Ohio where many other Saponi descendants had resettled. Today they are the Saponi Nation of Ohio and the Midwest Saponi Nation. As a result, administrator L.A. Paschall was required to publish in the newspaper the names of Freeman Howell’s heirs who had moved away to alert them of the land sale. For example:

Source: 18 May 1871 Raleigh Daily Telegram
Source: 18 May 1871 Raleigh Daily Telegram

In the account book for the Freeman Howell’s estate, we can see that his heirs who were still local received their cash share from the sale of his land. It also appears that those who had moved away and lost contact did not receive their shares. Here is the account for Freeman Howell’s estate:

First page of Freeman Howell estate's account. Source: North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998
First page of Freeman Howell estate’s account.
Source: North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998
Second page of Freeman Howell estate's account. Source: North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998
Second page of Freeman Howell estate’s account.
Source: North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998

Freeman Howell’s Descendants:

In the following sections, I will provide an overview of Freeman Howell’s descendants. This is a chart of Freeman Howell’s children, more detailed charts are included in the sections below.

Freeman Howell's children and their spouses
Freeman Howell’s children and their spouses. Please note that the maiden name of Freeman Howell’s wife Susan has not been confirmed. 

1. Julia Howell (1797 – 1870)

Julia Howell's family chart that shows her children and their spouses.
Julia Howell’s family chart

Julia Howell was the wife of Nelson Cousins (b. 1794). Nelson appears in the 1820 census for Mecklenburg Co, VA next to his father-in-law Freeman Howell. In 1830 and 1840, Nelson is counted in the Granville Co census. And by 1850, the family moved next door to Person Co, NC.

Starting in the 1860s, several of Julia Howell and Nelson Cousin’s children relocated to Ross Co, Ohio. And Julia Howell herself joined her children in Ohio because her death was recorded in Ross Co, OH on April 15, 1870.

Julia
Julia “Judith” (Howell) Cousins death record.
Source: Ohio, County Death Records, 1840-2001

Julia (Howell) Cousins’ children who relocated to Ohio were: John Cousins (1820-1891), Edmund Cousins (1824-1886), Robert Cousins (1830-1907), Elizabeth (Cousins) Day (b. 1832), Wiley Cousins (b. 1836) and William Cousins (b. 1838). The children who remained in North Carolina were: Frederick I Cousins (b. 1817), Emily (Cousins) Day (b. 1827), and Nelson Cousins Jr (b. 1844).

Because Julia predeceased her father, her share was divided among her heirs and her three children who remained in North Carolina each received a share of $1.33 of Freeman Howell’s estate. $9.45 divided by 7 shares, is $1.35. This indicates 7 living heirs of Julia (Howell) Cousins and according to my records, Elizabeth (Cousins) Day and William Day were deceased by 1870. And that would leave 7 living heirs.

Each heir who received a share of Freeman Howell's estate had to sign a receipt of payment. Because most people were semi literate, they signed with an
Each heir who received a share of Freeman Howell’s estate had to sign a receipt of payment. Because most family members were semi literate, they signed with an “x”. However Nelson Cousin Jr. (b. 1844) signed his own name.
Source: North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998

Son Edmund Cousins (1824-1886) lived long enough to file a Civil War pension in 1881 and his widow Julia Cousins filed one in 1890. If you’re a descendant of his, you’ll want to order the file from the War Department.

Edmund Cousins Civil War pension file number. Source: National Archives and Records Administration. U.S., Civil War Pension Index: General Index to Pension Files, 1861-1934 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2000. Original data: General Index to Pension Files, 1861-1934. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration. T288, 546 rolls.
Edmund Cousins’ Civil War pension file numbers.
Source: National Archives and Records Administration. U.S., Civil War Pension Index: General Index to Pension Files, 1861-1934 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2000.
Original data: General Index to Pension Files, 1861-1934. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration. T288, 546 rolls.
And son John Cousins (1820-1891) also fought in the Civil War and filed a pension in 1879 and his widow Martha (Hansberry) Cousins filed in 1892.

John Cousins Civil War Source: National Archives and Records Administration. U.S., Civil War Pension Index: General Index to Pension Files, 1861-1934 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2000. Original data: General Index to Pension Files, 1861-1934. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration. T288, 546 rolls.
John Cousins’ Civil War pension file numbers.
Source: National Archives and Records Administration. U.S., Civil War Pension Index: General Index to Pension Files, 1861-1934 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2000.
Original data: General Index to Pension Files, 1861-1934. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration. T288, 546 rolls.

2. Elizabeth Howell (1801- about 1874)

Elizabeth Howell's family chart
Elizabeth Howell’s family chart

Elizabeth Howell was the wife of James Fain (b. 1789), a man who was born enslaved but became emancipated in 1822. There is likely no official record of their marriage because of James Fain’s enslaved status, but any children born to them would be free because Elizabeth Howell was a free-born woman. James Fain’s brother was Jacob Fain (1775-1837) and a transcription of his emancipation record in 1805 can be found here. Jacob Fain’s widow Sally Fain, named James Fain as her husband’s brother in her 1814 will that was proved in 1854. A transcription can be found here.

From the census records it appears Elizabeth (Howell) Fain and her husband James Fain resided in Jacob and Sally Fain’s household in 1820, 1830, and 1840. In the 1850 census, Elizabeth Howell and her husband James Fain resided next to their sister-in-law Sally Fain. By 1870, Elizabeth (Howell) Fain was widowed and residing in Person Co, NC. She died in 1879, when her estate was administered by A.H. Bumpass. This is the same man who Elizabeth signed over her $9.45 share from Freeman Howell’s estate to several years earlier. Elizabeth’s estate was divided among James H Cousins, Fanny (Cousins) Davis, William A Cousins, and Sally Ann Cousins.

Estate of Elizabeth (Howell) Fain Source: North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998
Estate of Elizabeth (Howell) Fain
Source: North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998

Because Elizabeth Howell and her husband James Fain resided with their brother/sister-in-law Jacob and Sally Fain, I’ve had difficulties differentiating their children. There’s a strong possibility that James Fain and Elizabeth Howell’s son was William Fain (b. 1824) who married Arabella Wilkerson (b. 1832) on 8 Nov 1848 in Granville Co. Freeman Howell’s son Alexander Howell 1811-1881) paid the bond. Arabella Wilkerson was a daughter of the previously mentioned Milly Wilkerson, a white woman who lived with Freeman Howell.

Mildred Fain (1853-1930) was a daughter of William Fain and Arabella Wilkerson. William Fain may have been a son of James Fain and Elizabeth Howell. Mildred Fain was married to William Pettiford Source: Ancestry, Username: t4phillips
Mildred Fain (1853-1930) was a daughter of William Fain and Arabella Wilkerson. William Fain may have been a son of James Fain and Elizabeth Howell. Mildred Fain was married to William Pettiford
Source: Ancestry, Username: t4phillips

3. William Howell (1804- before 1860)

William Howell's family chart
William Howell’s family chart

William Howell married Margaret Pettiford (b. 1805) on 22 Mar 1828 in Granville Co, NC. Burton Cousins was the bondsman. William Howell appears in the 1830 and 1840 censuses for Granville Co. In 1850 his household was in Caswell Co, NC. With Magaret Pettiford, William Howell had three children: Freeman Howell b. 1830, John Howell b. 1834, and Margaret Howell b. 1838. His wife Margaret died sometime before 1858 because on 30 Dec 1858, William Howell remarried Parthena Cousins b. 1833 in Person Co. With Parthena Cousins, William Howell had one additional son: Asa Howell (1860-1929).

William Howell died around 1860, so he predeceased his father Freeman Howell. William Howell’s estate received the $9.45 share and signed it over to James Amis:

William Howell's estate collected the $9.45 payment from Freeman Howell's estate and signed it over to James Amis. William Howell predeceased his father Freeman Howell. Source: North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998
William Howell’s estate collected the $9.45 payment from Freeman Howell’s estate and signed it over to James Amis. William Howell predeceased his father Freeman Howell.
Source: North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998

William Howell’s son Freeman Howell (b. 1830) lived in Hillsboro, Orange Co and Pleasant Grove township, Alamance Co among ancestors of the present day Occaneechi Band of the Saponi Nation tribal members. He was married to Eliza Simmons (b. 1820) who was originally from Fayetteville, Cumberland Co and had been previously married to Henry Goins. After Goins death, Eliza and her three daughters relocated to Alamance Co and she married Freeman Howell.

Siblings George Goins (1877-1935) and Daisy Goins (1882-1938) of Hillsboro and Durham, NC. Their mother Josephine Goins was the step-daughter of Freeman Howell (b. 1830) Source: Ancestry, Username: seanyancey1968
Siblings George Goins (1877-1935) and Daisy Goins (1882-1938) of Hillsboro and Durham, NC. Their mother Josephine Goins was the step-daughter of Freeman Howell (b. 1830)
Source: Ancestry, Username: seanyancey1968

William Howell’s son John Howell (b. 1834) also lived in Pleasant Grove township, Alamance Co among ancestors of the Occaneechi Band of the Saponi Nation. John Howell does not appear to have ever married or had children. He last appears in the census in 1900.

That's John Howell (b. 1834), son of William Howell and Margaret Pettiford, residing in the household of John Hutson Jeffries and wife Mary Jane Jeffries. The couple are buried at Martin's Chapel Cemetery. Source: Year: 1900; Census Place: Pleasant Grove, Alamance, North Carolina; Roll: 1180; Page: 15A; Enumeration District: 0011; FHL microfilm: 1241180
That’s John Howell (b. 1834), son of William Howell and Margaret Pettiford, residing in the household of John Hutson Jeffries and wife Mary Jane “Polly” Jeffries. The couple are buried at Martin’s Chapel Cemetery.
Source: Year: 1900; Census Place: Pleasant Grove, Alamance, North Carolina; Roll: 1180; Page: 15A; Enumeration District: 0011; FHL microfilm: 1241180

And William Howell’s youngest son Asa Howell (1860-1929) lived most of his life in Fishing Creek township, Granville Co. He was married three times: Dora Norwood (b. 1860), Virginia Crews (b. 1875) , and Nancy Howell (1871-1949).

A page from Asa Howell's estate records which indicate how his estate was to be divided. Source: North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998
A page from Asa Howell’s estate records which indicate how his estate was to be divided.
Source: North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998

4. Edward Howell (1805-1874)

Edward Howell was not married and did not have any children. He appears in the 1850 and 1870 censuses for Pleasant Grove township, Alamance Co, NC which is where the Occaneechi Band of the Saponi Nation is located. He received his $9.45 share of his father Freeman Howell’s estate. Edward died in 1874 and because he did not have any children, his estate was divided among his siblings and their living heirs. The administrator of Edward Howell’s estate published a notice in the newspaper regarding the estate.

Edward Howell died without a spouse or children, so his estate was divided among his siblings and their heirs. Like Freeman Howell's estate records, Edward Howell's estate records are a good source for documenting the Howell family. Source: The Alamance Gleaner, 11 Jan 1876, Tue, Page 4
Edward Howell died without a spouse or children, so his estate was divided among his siblings and their heirs. Like Freeman Howell’s estate records, Edward Howell’s estate records are a good source for documenting the Howell family.
Source: The Alamance Gleaner, 11 Jan 1876, Tue, Page 4

5. John Howell (1805-1867)

John Howell's family chart
John Howell’s family chart

John Howell married Jane Harris (1817-before 1900) on 5 Aug 1836 in Granville Co. He then appears in the census for Granville Co in 1840, 1850, and 1860. John died around 1867 and so he predeceased his father Freeman Howell. Jane (Harris) Howell continued to live in Fishing Creek, Granville Co and assisted in raising her grandchildren.

John Howell and Jane Harris had 11 children: Julia Howell (b. 1838), James E Howell (1840-1912), Indiana Howell (b. 1842), Polly Ann Howell (1844-1914), Harvey  Howell (b. 1846), Christopher C Howell (1848-1920), Sally Howell (1850-1923), Missouri Howell (1851-1918), Joanna Howell (b. 1852), Ida Howell (1855-1928), and Lucy Virginia “Jennie” Howell (b. 1858). Each of John Howell’s 11 living heirs received a share of the $9.45 payment which came to 85 cents but not all came to collect their shares.

Julia Howell (b. 1838) was married to Henry Chavis (1815-1882) and continued to live in Fishing Creek, Granville Co. James E Howell (1840-1912) was my 2nd great-grandfather and he was married first to Betsy Ann Tyler (1851-1869) on 6 Apr 1867 but she died soon after. He next married my 2nd great-grandmother Virginia “Jinnie” Richardson (1850-before 1880) on 11 Nov 1869 in Warren Co and they had three children: Edward Brodie Howell (1870-1942), Francis Ellen Howell (1872-1923), and Lucy J Howell (1873-1952). Virginia “Jinnie” Richardson Howell died and James E Howell remained a widow until he remarried Mary McGlemdon on 9 Aug 1887 in Granville Co and had one additional son William Isaac Howell (b. 1891). James E Howell spent his entire life in Fishing Creek, Granville Co and was once nominated as county coroner on the Radical Republican ticket.

James E Howell (1840-1912) called
James E Howell (1840-1912) called “Jim Howell” here, was paid for transporting bodies and burying graves. His experience in this field is probably why he was nominated for county coroner the following year.
Source: The Torchlight, 13 Dec 1881, Tue, Page 3
In 1882, the Radical Republican part nominated James E Howell as county coroner. His first cousin James A Howell was nominated for a House seat. However the following week, both James E Howell and James A Howell were replaced on the ticket. Source: The Torchlight, 10 Oct 1882, Tue, Page 4
In 1882, the Radical Republican party nominated James E Howell as county coroner. His first cousin James A Howell (1846-1934) was nominated for a House seat. However the following week, both James E Howell and James A Howell were replaced on the ticket.
Source: The Torchlight, 10 Oct 1882, Tue, Page 4
Dr. Edward Gaylord Howell was the grandson of James E Howell and Virginia Richardson. Source: Christie Carter Lynch
Dr. Edward Gaylord Howell (1898-1971) was the son of Edward Brodie Howell, and the grandson of James E Howell and Virginia Richardson.
Source: Christie Carter Lynch
Beatrice Howell (1901-1967) was the daughter of Edward Brodie Howell, and the granddaughter of James E Howell and Virginia Richardson. She was married to Dr. Ledrue Turner. Source: Christine Carter Lynch
Beatrice Howell (1901-1967) was the daughter of Edward Brodie Howell, and the granddaughter of James E Howell and Virginia Richardson. She was married to Dr. Ledrue Turner.
Source: Christine Carter Lynch
Beatrice Turner Source: Christine Carter Lynch
Beatrice Turner (1923-1969) was the daughter of Beatrice Howell, the granddaughter of Edward Brodie Howell, and great-granddaughter of James E Howell and Virginia Richardson. She was married to James Young Carter.
Source: Christine Carter Lynch

Indiana Howell (b. 1842) was married to William Kersey (b. 1939) and lived in Townesville on the current Vance/Granville Co border. All of their children relocated to Brockton, MA by 1900. Polly Ann Howell (1844-1914) was first married to Aaron Curtis (1842-1883) and had a son named Harvey Curtis (b. 1885) who moved to New Haven, CT. She became widowed and second married John Green (1850-1915).

Harvey Howell (b. 1846) moved up to Danville, VA and married a woman named Sallie Burnett (b. 1848). Christopher C Howell (1848-1920) married Harriet Goins (b. 1850) and lived his whole life in Fishing Creek, Granville Co. He owned an insurance company named Masonic Insurance and most of his children relocated to Brockton, MA and New Haven, CT.

Christopher C Howell's will. Source: North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998
Christopher C Howell’s (1848-1920) will.
Source: North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998

Sally Howell (1850-1923) was first married to Lunsford Williford (b. 1847) and second married James Berry Cousins (1854-1926). She lived in Granville Co her entire life. Missouri Howell (1851-1918) was not married but had two daughters Plummer Howell (1880-1930) and Mittie Howell (b. 1888) born out of wedlock.

Mattie Howell Miller was the daughter of Plummer Howell, granddaughter of Misssouri Howell, and great-granddaughter of John Howell. Plummer Howell moved up to Bucks Co, PA. Source: The Bristol Daily Courier, 27 Jan 1961, Fri, Page 19
Mattie Howell Miller (1905-1961) was the daughter of Plummer Howell, granddaughter of Missouri Howell, and great-granddaughter of John Howell. Plummer Howell moved up to Bucks Co, PA.
Source: The Bristol Daily Courier, 27 Jan 1961, Fri, Page 19

Joanna Howell (b. 1852) received a share of her grandfather Freeman Howell’s estate but I’m not sure what happened to her after that and if she married and had children. Ida Howell (1855-1928) married James Mayo (1847-1910) on 22 Dec 1874 and continued to live in Granville Co. Lucy Virginia “Jennie” Howell (b. 1858) received a share of her grandfather Freeman Howell’s estate but I’m certain if she married and had children.


6. Matthew Howell (1806 – before 1860)

Matthew Howell's family chart
Matthew Howell’s family chart

Matthew Howell married Mary Pettiford (b. 1807) on 29 Mar 1831. He appears in the 1850 census for Alamance Co with his wife and children. Matthew died before the 1860 census, and his children are found spread among Orange Co, NC, Guilford Co, NC, Danville, VA, And it appears they became disconnected with the rest of the Howell family because although Freeman Howell’s estate published their names in the newspaper, none of Matthew Howell’s children came back to collect on their share of the estate.


7. James Howell (1810 – before 1870)

James Howell's family chart
James Howell’s family chart

James Howell married Ann Troler b. 1810 (also spelled Toler) on 14 Aug 1834 in Granville Co. He was counted in the 1850 and 1860 censuses for Granville Co and died sometime before 1870 so he predeceased his father Freeman Howell. As a result, James Howell’s estate was granted his share of Freeman Howell’s estate which was $10.08, slightly higher than the $9.45 that the rest of Freeman’s children received.

James Howell and Ann Troler’s children were: Minerva Howell (b. 1836), Louisa Howell (b. 1845), Margaret Howell (1849-1915), William Howell (1852-1926), Mary Eliza Howell (1856-1926), and Juda Howell (b. 1858) who continued to live around the Sassafras Fork/Oak Hill area of Granville Co.


8. Alexander “Doc” Howell (1811-1881)

Alexander Howell's family chart
Alexander Howell’s family chart

Alexander Howell married Betsy Ann Anderson (b. 1825) on 4 Jul 1839 in Granville Co. Alexander was a preacher and resided in Fishing Creek, Granville Co for his entire life. He was still living when his father Freeman Howell passed away, so Alexander received his $9.45 share of the estate. He had a large family that included 10 children and his family often appears living adjacent to the family of his brother John Howell (and wife Jane Harris).

Daughter Polly Ann Howell (b. 1840) was not married but had a son named Ben Howell (1867-1949). Son Elijah Howell (b. 1841) was first married to Harriet Evans (b 1847) and second to Eveline Watkins (b. 1854). Daughter Frances Howell (b. 1842) was married to Civil War veteran of the 54th Regiment Varnell Mayo (1837-1900) whom I previously blogged about here.

Son Freeman Howell (b. 1844) was also a preacher and was married first to Nancy Ash (b. 1849) and second to Mary Cowell (b. 1866). Son James A Howell (1846-1934) was first married to Emily Evans (b. 1853), second married to Mary Eaton (1865-1887), and third married to Sally Pettiford (1856-1934). Son Junius Thomas Howell (b. 1848) was married to Pantheyer Brandon (1851-1934).

James A Howell's (1846-1934) will. Source: North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998
James A Howell’s (1846-1934) will. He was the son of Alexander “Doc” Howell and Betsy Ann Anderson.
Source: North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998
Nancy Howell (1871-1947). Daughter of Junius Thomas Howell and Pantheyer Brandon. Granddaughter of Alexander
Nancy Howell (1871-1947). Daughter of Junius Thomas Howell and Pantheyer Brandon. Granddaughter of Alexander “Doc” Howell and Betsy Ann Anderson. Married to Herbert Junius Anderson and later married to Asa Howell. Nancy was a lifelong resident of Fishing Creek, Granville County.
Source: Ancestry, Username: Christopher Williams
Nancy Howell (1871-1947), daughter of Junius Thomas Howell and Pantheyer Brandon, is shown here again with one of her sons from her first marriage to Dennis Anderson. Fishing Creek, Granville Co, NC. Source: Christopher Williams
Nancy Howell (1871-1947), daughter of Junius Thomas Howell and Pantheyer Brandon, is shown here again with one of her sons from her first marriage to Herbert Junius Anderson (b. 1864). Fishing Creek, Granville Co, NC.
Source: Christopher Williams

Daughter Mickins Howell (b. 1850) does not appear in the records again as an adult. Daughter Judith Howell (1852-1924) was married first to Nehemiah Mayo (b. 1850) and second married to John Hedgepeth (b. 1860).

Claude Eugene Hedgepeth (1891-1962) was the son of Judith Howell and John Hedgepeth the grandson of Alexander Howell and Betsy Ann Anderson. Source: Ancestry, Username: hedgepeth_richardson
Claude Eugene Hedgepeth (1891-1962) was the son of Judith Howell and John Hedgepeth and the grandson of Alexander Howell and Betsy Ann Anderson.
Source: Ancestry, Username: hedgepeth_richardson
Ethel Mae Hedgepeth (1913-1981) was the daughter of Claude Eugene Hedgepeth, granddaughter of Judith Howell, and great-granddaughter of Alexander Howell and Betsy Ann Anderson. Source: Ancestry, Username: Iris Grant
Ethel Mae Hedgepeth (1913-1981) was the daughter of Claude Eugene Hedgepeth, granddaughter of Judith Howell, and great-granddaughter of Alexander Howell and Betsy Ann Anderson.
Source: Ancestry, Username: Iris Grant

Son Henry Howell (1857-1916) was married to Amanda Brandon (1858-1922) and lived in Fishing Creek, Granville Co and Kittrell, Vance Co. And daughter Adeline Jane Howell (b. 1858) was married to Dennis Stanley Hedgepeth (b. 1852).

Adeline Jane Howell (1858 - after 1900) Daughter of Alexander
Adeline Jane Howell (1858 – after 1900) was the daughter of Alexander “Doc” Howell and Betsy Ann Anderson.
Source: Ancestry, Username: Christopher Williams
Carrie Hedgepeth (1894-1960) was the daughter of Adeline Jane Howell and Dennis Stanley Hedgepeth. Source: Ancestry, Username: Christopher Williams
Carrie Hedgepeth (1894-1960) was the daughter of Adeline Jane Howell and Dennis Stanley Hedgepeth.
Source: Ancestry, Username: Christopher Williams

Alexander Howell died on June 15, 1881 and his obituary appeared in the newspaper:

Obituary of Alexander Howell (1811-1881) Source: The Torchlight, 21 Jun 1881, Tue, Page 3
Obituary of Alexander Howell (1811-1881)
Source: The Torchlight, 21 Jun 1881, Tue, Page 3

9. Mary Ann Howell (b. 1815)

Mary Ann Howell's family chart
Mary Ann Howell’s family chart

Mary Ann Howell married Owen Hart (1810-1881) on 18 Sep 1832 in Granville Co. By 1850, the family was residing in Person Co, NC and by 1860, the family relocated to Pike Co, Ohio. Their children were: Susan Hart (b. 1845), Nancy Hart (1845-1869), Abigail Hart (1849- before 1880), Lorenzo Hart (1857-1870), and Robert Owen Hart (b. 1862).

Mary Ann (Howell) Hart was still living when her father Freeman Howell died but she had relocated to Ohio, so her name was published in the paper to alert her of the land sale. It does not appear Mary Ann received her $9.45 share of the estate likely because she had moved away.


10. Additional Howell Descendants

These are additional descendants of Freeman Howell who received a share of his estate but their exact lineage is unknown.
These are additional descendants of Freeman Howell who received a share of his estate but their exact lineage is unknown.

There are a few Howells that I know directly descend from Freeman Howell (1777-1870) because they are named in the estate files, but I have some questions about exactly how they are related to Freeman Howell.

Allen Howell (1820-1850), married Malinda Parrish (b. 1827) on 12 Mar 1847 in Granville Co, NC, James Floyd bondsman. They had one daughter together – Elizabeth Howell (b. 1850) but Allen Howell died the same year. Allen Howell’s sister Eliza Howell (b. 1825) married James Floyd on 6 Sep 1845 in Granville Co, NC. This is the same James Floyd who was the bondsman for his brother-in-law Allen Howell’s marriage. James Floyd and Eliza Howell had two children: William Floyd (b. 1847) and Willie Ann Floyd (b. 1849) but James Floyd died in 1850. You can find the widowed sister-in-laws Eliza (Howell) Floyd and Malinda (Parrish) Howell living together with their children in the 1850 census:

Eliza (Howell) Floyd is showing widowed and living with her children, and sister-in-law Malinda (Parrish) Howell who was also widowed. Source: Year: 1850; Census Place: Oxford, Granville, North Carolina; Roll: M432_631; Page: 101B; Image: 202
Eliza (Howell) Floyd is shown widowed and living with her children, and her sister-in-law Malinda (Parrish) Howell who was also widowed.
Source: Year: 1850; Census Place: Oxford, Granville, North Carolina; Roll: M432_631; Page: 101B; Image: 202
Malinda Parrish (b. 1827) was first married to Allen Howell (1820-1850) and second married to Dennis Anderson (b. 1813). Source: Ancestry, Username: Waniehol
Malinda Parrish (b. 1827) was first married to Allen Howell (1820-1850) and second married to Dennis Anderson (b. 1813).
Source: Ancestry, Username: Waniehol

Malinda (Parrish) Howell remarried Dennis Anderson (b. 1813) on 18 Jun 1852 and had additional children with him. Dennis was a preacher and presided over many marriages for people in the community. I don’t know what happened to Eliza (Howell) Floyd. When Freeman Howell passed away, Allen Howell and Malinda Parrish’s daughter Elizabeth Howell (b.1850) received $1.58 for her share of the estate. And Eliza (Howell) Floyd’s daughter Willie Ann Floyd b. 1849 (she was called “Willie Ann Howell” in the estate records), received $1.05 for her share of Freeman Howell’s estate. So we know Allen Howell and Eliza Howell Floyd were related to Freeman, but I’m unsure if they were his children or grandchildren. I’m also unsure of how their shares of Freeman Howell’s estate were calculated.

Elizabeth Howell (b. 1850) daughter of Allen Howell and Malinda Parish, received a share of Freeman Howell's estate. Source: North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998
Elizabeth Howell (b. 1850) daughter of Allen Howell and Malinda Parish, received a share of Freeman Howell’s estate.
Source: North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998
William Ann Howell/Floyd (b. 1849), daughter of James Floyd and Eliza Howell received a share of Freeman Howell's estate. Source: North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998
Willie Ann Howell/Floyd (b. 1849), daughter of James Floyd and Eliza Howell received a share of Freeman Howell’s estate.
Source: North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998
Napolean Bonapart Tyler (1916-1986) was the son of John Henry Tyler, the grandson of Elizabeth Howell and Benjamin Tyler, and the great-grandson of Allen Howell and Malinda Parrish. Source: Darrin Norwood
Napolean Bonepart Tyler (1916-1986) was the son of John Henry Tyler, the grandson of Elizabeth Howell and Benjamin Tyler, and the great-grandson of Allen Howell and Malinda Parrish.
Source: Darrin Norwood

There was a Margaret Owen who received a share of $3.15 of Freeman Howell’s estate. That is 1/3 of the $9.45 that was distributed to Freeman Howell’s children which suggests that this Margaret Owen was one of three siblings, who were grandchildren of Freeman Howell.

A Margaret Owen received a share of Freeman Howell's estate. The amount of $3.15 suggests that she was one of three siblings who were grandchildren of Freeman Howell. Source: North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998
A Margaret Owen received a share of Freeman Howell’s estate. The amount of $3.15 suggests that she was one of three siblings who were grandchildren of Freeman Howell.
Source: North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998

There was a Lucy Chavis who received a share of $1.58 of Freeman Howell’s estate. This is Lucy (Howell) Chavis b. 1843 who married Lawson Chavis (b. 1833) on 20 Nov 1865 in Person Co, NC. I’m not sure who Lucy Howell’s parents were because the first time I find her in the census she’s living in the household of Nelson Cousins (b. 1794) and Julia Howell (1797-1870). So we know Lucy Howell is definitely a descendant of Freeman Howell. It’s also worth mentioning that both Lucy (Howell) Chavis and the previously discussed Elizabeth Howell (b. 1850) received $1.58 each, suggesting a close (sibling?) relationship between the two.

Lucy (Howell) Chavis (b. 1843) received a share of Freeman Howell's estate. Source: North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998
Lucy (Howell) Chavis (b. 1843) received a share of Freeman Howell’s estate.
Source: North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998

And finally there is an Elizabeth Haithcock who received a share of 85 cents from Freeman Howell’s estate. Her husband William Haithcok signed the receipt for her and stated that his wife Elizabeth’s maiden name was Howell. I found a William Howell (a blacksmith) and Bettie Howell in the 1860 census in Granville Co and they seem to fit. But this same William Haithcock appears in the 1870 and 1880 census as a blacksmith with a wife name Isabella Haithcock. Also Elizabeth (Howell) Haithcock received 85 cents which is the same amount that the children of John Howell and Jane Harris received. However there is no record of John Howell and Jane Harris having a daughter named Elizabeth. So I’m also not sure what to make of this.

Elizabeth (Howell) Haithcock received a share of Freeman Howell's estate and her husband William Haithcock signed the receipt on her behalf. Source: North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998
Elizabeth (Howell) Haithcock received a share of Freeman Howell’s estate and her husband William Haithcock signed the receipt on her behalf.
Source: North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998

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Cleaning Up the 1820 Census of Granville County

For the 1820 census of Granville County, the enumerators did something unusual – they enumerated every household by district. Most censuses of rural counties during this time period, simply enumerated every household in the county without dividing them among the districts within the county. For reasons unknown to me (perhaps the 1820 census was based off of a tax list?), the enumerators did something different for the 1820 census. What they did is a tremendous help to researchers because we can geographically locate where in Granville, a family was living. Though it was a noble effort, it was unfortunately executed poorly. Many of the census pages for the 1820 census for Granville County were not properly labeled, were sequenced out of order and some pages were erroneously mixed in with the census for Guilford County, creating quite a confusion. But do not fear – I correctly resequenced the 1820 census by district.

1820 Census for the Oxford District of Granville County. Circled in red is where the enumerator marked that the page was for the Oxford District. Source: 1820 U S Census; Census Place: Oxford, Granville, North Carolina; Page: 3; NARA Roll: M33_85; Image: 13
1820 Census for the Oxford District of Granville County. Circled in red is where the enumerator marked that the page was for the Oxford District.
Source: 1820 U S Census; Census Place: Oxford, Granville, North Carolina; Page: 3; NARA Roll: M33_85; Image: 13
This is a census page for the Beaverdam District of Granville County in 1820. However it is not labeled and therefore was incorrectly mixed in with the census for Guilford County. The page number in the top right corner was how I was able to reorganize the mixed up census pages for Granville County. Source: 1820 U S Census; Census Place: Guilford, North Carolina; Page: 46; NARA Roll: M33_85; Image: 35
This is a census page for the Beaverdam District of Granville County in 1820. However it is not labeled in the upper left corner and therefore was incorrectly mixed in with the census for Guilford County. Fortunately the page number on the top right corner helped me reorganize the mixed up census pages for Granville County.
Source: 1820 U S Census; Census Place: Guilford, North Carolina; Page: 46; NARA Roll: M33_85; Image: 35

The 1820 census for Granville County is divided into the following districts with the corresponding page numbers:

Oxford – pages 3, 4, 33, 34

Henderson – pages 5, 6, 46 (46 mixed in with Guilford County)

Epping Forest – pages 7, 8

Fishing Creek – pages 9, 10

Tabbs Creek – pages 11, 12

Fort Creek – pages 13, 14, 49 (49 mixed in with Guilford County)

Beaverdam – pages 15, 16, 47 , 48 (47 and 48 mixed in with Guilford County)

Ledge of Rock – pages 17, 18, 41 (41 mixed in with Guilford County)

Tar River – pages 19, 20, 39 (39 mixed in with Guilford County)

Goshen – pages 21, 22, 37 (37 mixed in with Guilford County)

Abram Plains – pages 23, 24

Island Creek – pages 25, 26

Nutbush – pages 27, 28

Napp (Knapp) of Reeds – pages 29, 30

Raglands – pages 31, 32

County Line – pages 35, 36 (36 mixed in with Guilford County)

Hatch District – pages 43, 44, 45 (all pages mixed in with Guilford County)

Pages 38, 40 and 42 are blank


The following is a list of every household headed by a “free person of color” in the 1820 census for Granville County. Most but not all of these families were part of the Native American community.

Oxford:
George Anderson
Thomas Anderson
Peter Anderson
Henry Anderson
Jeremiah Anderson
Isaac Anderson
Benjamin Anderson
John Anderson
Jacob Anderson
Darling Bass
Jason Bass
Moses Bass
John Chavis
William Evans
William Guy
Daniel Harris
John Jones
Mary Jones
George Pettiford
Anderson Pettiford
Willis Pettiford
Abram Plenty
Alexander Stuart
William Taborn
Lemuel Tyler

Henderson:
Lewis Anderson
Henry Vaughn

Fishing Creek:
Nathan Bass
Jesse Bass
Ann Boswell
Jesse Chavis
Elijah Valentine

Tabbs Creek:
Augustine Anderson
Robert Jones

Beaverdam:
Manuel Jones
Nancy Jones
Major Jones

Ledge of Rock:
Dempsey Bass
Cambridge Goss
Jupiter Mayo
Elizabeth Okey
John Silvy/Silva/Silver (incorrectly indexed in Guilford County)

Tar River:
Jeremiah Anderson
Edward Mitchell

Goshen:
Nancy Hart

Abram Plains:
Willis Bass
Charles Brandon
Charles Barnett
Samuel Evans
Thomas Evans
Jacob Fain
Thompson Jones
Charles Proctor
Joseph Proctor
Matthew Stuart

Nutbush:
Easter Pettiford
Austin Pettiford

Raglands:
Zachariah Mitchell
Patsey Scott
Littleton Taborn

Napp (Knapp) of Reeds:
Joseph Curtis
Henry Huddleston

County Line:
Matt Cousins
Robert Cousins
Martin Cousins
Evans Chavis
James Durham
Simon Davis
Polly Harris
Collins Pettiford  (incorrectly indexed in Guilford County)
Abram Smith (incorrectly indexed in Guilford County)

Hatch District (all incorrectly indexed in Guilford County):
Mark Chavis
Jupiter Megehee
Elias Bookram (enumerated as “Elias Puckins”)
Edmund Taborn

There were no “free colored” head of households in the Epping Forest, Fort Creek, and Island Creek Districts.


If you located your research subject in the list above, then you now know what district of Granville County in 1820 they were living in. Many of these district names have changed over the years and their boundaries have changed as well. For example, I have found that what was considered Oxford in 1820 included large sections of Fishing Creek.

To aide in identifying where these districts are located, I labeled the following map:

Approximate locations of Granville County's Districts that were included in the 1820 census. Please note that the names and boundaries of districts have changed quite a bit over the years, so what you see here is my best reflection of where these districts were located in 18820. Source: http://dc.lib.unc.edu/cdm/singleitem/collection/ncmaps/id/654/rec/14
Approximate locations of Granville County’s Districts that were included in the 1820 census. Please note that the names and boundaries of districts have changed quite a bit over the years, so what you see here is my best reflection of where these districts were located in 1820.
Source: http://dc.lib.unc.edu/cdm/singleitem/collection/ncmaps/id/654/rec/14

The Boon(e) Family from the Tuscarora “Indian Woods” Reservation

The Boon(e) family in Granville County descends from a woman named Rebecca Boon (born 1805) who moved to Granville in the 1840s. Her Boone family originally came from the Tuscarora “Indian Woods” reservation in Bertie County. In addition to Granville County, there are Boon(e) descendants in the Haliwa-Saponi tribe and the Meherrin Tribe. This blog entry will take a closer look at the historical records that connect the Boon(e) family to the Indian Woods reservation.

Rebecca Boon (born 1805)

Before discussing the Boon family’s tribal origins, I will first provide more background information on Rebecca Boon. She is the most recent common ancestor of every Boon that I have identified from Granville County.

Rebecca first appears in the census in 1840 in Northampton County, NC. She is the head of a household that includes 1 Free Colored Female 24-35; 1 Free Colored Male 10-23; 1 Free Colored Male Under 10; 2 Free Colored Females 10-23; 2 Free Colored Females Under 10. From this census data, we can surmise that Rebecca Boon is the head of a household that includes 6 children (2 boys, 4 girls) that are most likely her children.

Rebecca Boon in the 1840 Census in Northampton County, NC. Source; Year: 1840; Census Place: Northampton, North Carolina; Roll: 366; Page: 111; Image: 229; Family History Library Film: 0018096
Rebecca Boon in the 1840 Census in Northampton County, NC.
Source: Year: 1840; Census Place: Northampton, North Carolina; Roll: 366; Page: 111; Image: 229; Family History Library Film: 0018096

The next record for Rebecca Boon is in 1847, when she married Iverson Mitchell from the Native American/”free colored” Mitchell family in Granville County. By marrying Iverson Mitchell, Rebecca relocated her family to the center of the Native American community in Granville. In the 1850 census for Granville County, she is listed as “Rebecca Mitchell” and is living with her husband Iverson Mitchell, and her youngest children Jane Boon and Margaret Boon.

Rebecca (Boon) Mitchell shown with her husband Iverson Mitchell and children Jane and Margaret Boon. Rebecca's daughter Ruth Boon is showing living in the next household, married to Lewis Anderson. Source: Year: 1850; Census Place: Oxford, Granville, North Carolina; Roll: M432_631; Page: 107B; Image: 214
Rebecca (Boon) Mitchell shown with her husband Iverson Mitchell and children Jane Boon and Margaret Boon. Rebecca’s daughter Ruth Boon is showing living in the next household, married to Lewis Anderson.
Source: Year: 1850; Census Place: Oxford, Granville, North Carolina; Roll: M432_631; Page: 107B; Image: 214

Rebecca last appears in the 1860 census in Granville County, when she is listed in the household of her son-in-law Lewis Anderson who is married to her daughter Ruth Boon.

Rebecca Boon is shown living in the household of her son-in-law Lewis Anderson. Because Rebecca is listed with the Boon surname and without her husband Iverson Mitchell, it is most likely the died or they divorced. Source: Year: 1860; Census Place: Oxford, Granville, North Carolina; Roll: M653_898; Page: 531; Image: 537; Family History Library Film: 803898
Rebecca Boon is shown living in the household of her son-in-law Lewis Anderson. Because Rebecca is listed with the Boon surname and without her husband Iverson Mitchell, she is likely widowed or divorced.
Source: Year: 1860; Census Place: Oxford, Granville, North Carolina; Roll: M653_898; Page: 531; Image: 537; Family History Library Film: 803898

Below is a list of Rebecca Boon’s children:

1. James Boon (born 1825) – married first Martha Curtis and second Mary Drew

2. Martha Boon (born 1827) – married Cuffy Mayo (this is not the same Cuffy Mayo who was married to Glathy Ann Pettiford-Hawkins and Julia Pettiford- Hawley)

3. Betsy Boon (born 1828) – married John Mills

4. Willis Boon (born 1829) – married Isabella Mayo

4. Ruth Boon (born 1832) – married Lewis Anderson

5. Jane Boon (born 1837)

6. Margaret Boon (born 1842)

and possibly 7. Emeline Boon (birth date unknown) – married Samuel Hawley

Willis Boon ( born 1829) put out an reward for the return of his daughter Martha Boon. It appears she ran away and Willis suspected that someone was hiding her. Perhaps relevant - the following year in 1879, Martha Boon wed John Jones. Source: The Torchlight, 2 Apr 1878, Tue, Page 2
Willis Boon ( born 1829) put out a reward for the return of his daughter Martha Boon. It appears she ran away and Willis suspected that someone was hiding her. Perhaps relevant – the following year in 1879, Martha Boon wed John Jones.
Source: The Torchlight, 2 Apr 1878, Tue, Page 2
New article about Isabelle (Mayo) Boon, wife of Willis Boon. Source: Oxford Public Ledger, 6 Feb 1920, Fri, Page 1
Newspaper article about Isabella (Mayo) Boon, wife of Willis Boon.
Source: Oxford Public Ledger, 6 Feb 1920, Fri, Page 1
Sylvester
Sylvester “Sylvia” Boon (1906-1980) was the daughter of Charlie Boon and Bettie Williford. Her grandfather was Willis Boon (born 1829) and great-grandmother was Rebecca Boon (born 1805). Sylvia Boon lived in Granville County for most of her life. 
Source: Kellie Cervero Harris (Sylvia’s great-granddaughter)
Sylvester
Sylvester “Sylvia” Boon (1906-1980) pictured here again with her great-granddaughter Kellie.
Source: Kellie Cervero Harris (Sylvia’s great-granddaughter)

The earliest verified records for the Boon(e) family are found in Bertie County in the mid/late 1700s. Unfortunately there are no land records or estate records associated with the Boones during this time period. There are however a number of court cases that involve several Boon(e) children being bound out. In these records, the Boones were labeled as “mulatto” and were free people, not enslaved. Some of the genealogical information on the Boon(e) family comes from Paul Heinegg’s research.

Boon(e) Family Tree showing the earliest Boones. Please note that not every Boon(e) is listed in the family tree, only the Boone(e) discussed within the blog are listed. © Kianga Lucas
Boon(e) Family Tree showing the earliest Boones. Please note that not every Boon(e) is listed in the family tree, only the Boone(e) discussed within the blog are listed.
© Kianga Lucas

Patt Boone (born abt 1742) and her offspring

The Bertie County court bound out several of Patt Boon’s (born abt 1742) children to James Brown in 1774. These children were: Lewis, Katie, Judah, and Arthur. Patt Boon’s age is unknown and can only be estimated based upon the birth dates of her children. So with that in mind, researcher Paul Heinegg estimated her birth date to be 1742. In 1772, Rachel Boon was a “mollatter” listed as a tithable in the household of a white man named James Purvis. In 1769, it appears Rachel was also in James Purvis’ home because he was charged with a tax for having a free non-white woman in his home. Heinegg believes this Rachel is a daughter of Patt Boon. Two of Rachel Boon’s sons – Willis Boon and Hill Boon, were bound out in 1791 to Richard Veal. A girl named Sarah Boon who Heinegg suspects is a daughter of Rachel Boon’s, was bound out to Thomas Pugh Jr in 1789. Another suspected daughter of Patt Boon’s named Rebeeca Boon (born about 1767) had a son named Cary Boon bound out also to Richard Veal in 1792.


Boon(e) Family and Indian Woods

Map showing the boundaries of the Indian Woods. The red boundary reflects the 1748 boundaries when the reservation was defined. The blue addition represents land that was most likely part of the reservation in 1717 when it was not clearly defined. The Boon family resided with Thomas Pugh Jr who lived directly on the reservation, with James Purvis and Richard Veal who lived adjacent to the reservation, and with James Brown who lived very close to the reservation. Source: http://dc.lib.unc.edu/cdm/singleitem/collection/ncmaps/id/7753/rec/12
Map showing the boundaries of the Indian Woods reservation. The red boundary reflects the 1748 boundaries when the reservation was defined. The blue addition represents land that was most likely part of the reservation in 1717 when it was not clearly defined. The Boon family resided with Thomas Pugh Jr who lived directly on the reservation, with James Purvis and Richard Veal who lived adjacent to the reservation, and with James Brown who lived very close to the reservation.
Source: http://dc.lib.unc.edu/cdm/singleitem/collection/ncmaps/id/7753/rec/12

When we take a closer look at these men from Bertie County who are associated with various members of the Boon family, we start to see the Tuscarora Indian Woods connections.

James Purvis, the man who Rachel Boon was living with in 1769 and 1772, is recorded in 1766 selling land on the north side of Roquist Swamp (Creek).

1765: Deed Book K, 659 (475), 18 May 1765. James Purvis of Bertie Co. to Charles King of same, £33.6.8 proclamation money, 1/3 part of land which MARTIN GARDNER gave to his 3 daughters, on north side of Rockquis Swamp, joining William Sparkman, John Rhoads. Witnesses: William Gouge, James Purvis. June Court 1765. CC: John Johnston.[Deeds of Bertie County, North Carolina, 1757-1785, Part 1, by Dr. Stephen E. Bradley, Jr., page 61]

Source: http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=7213&id=I24392

James Purvis’ wife was Jane (Gardner) Purvis, daughter of the above mentioned Martin Gardner. Jane inherited this land from her father’s 1760 will in Bertie County and so that is why her husband James later sold it.

Recall from my blog post about the boundaries of the Tuscarora “Indian Woods” reservation, that Roquist Swamp (Creek) forms a long natural border of the reservation. The reservation abuts the southside of the creek, and James Purvis’ land that his wife inherited from her father Martin Gardner, abuts the north side of the creek.

Also of important relevance is that Martin Gardner was a close friend of Needham Bryan (1690-1770), who served as executor of Martin Gardner’s 1760 will that granted land to Jane (Gardner) Purvis. Needham Bryan owned Snowfield Plantation located within the Indian Woods reservation and he held a number of important public offices. The location of Needham Bryan’s land within Indian Woods is confirmed in this colonial record from 1773 (Moratuck is the Roanoke River):

Upon a Complaint of the Chief of the Tuscarora Indians that one William King had entered upon and committed waste upon the Lands lying on the North side of Moratuck which lands were granted to Col. Needham Bryan by the Lords proprietors upon the failure of that nation of Indians and afterwards confirmed to him by the Legislature of this Province, it was the opinion of this Board that His Excellency should write a letter to Mr Wm King to remove off the Land or shew cause why he had possession of it.

Source: http://docsouth.unc.edu/csr/index.html/document/csr09-0230

We also learn in an earlier colonial record from 1764 that Needham Bryan had a close relationship with the Tuscarora where he is shown attending to their needs:

Resolved, that Mr. Needham Bryan enquire into the cause of the Tuscarora Indians attending this Assembly, and provide necessaries for their subsistance, and report thereon

Source: http://docsouth.unc.edu/csr/index.html/document/csr06-0369

Then we have Richard Veal – the man who Rachel Boon’s sons Willis and Hill and Rebecca Boon’s son Cary were bound to. Richard Veal purchased land in 1805 next to Roquist Swamp (Creek):

Witnesseth that the said DEMPSEY VEALE hath bargained
sold and put into possession of the said RICHARD VEAL a
certain tract or message of land lying and being in the
State and County aforesaid lying in ROCQUIST POCOSIN, it
being a prt of the land that belonged to MORRIS VEAL
dec’d.

Source: http://files.usgwarchives.net/nc/bertie/veal1805.txt

So two men – James Purvis and Richard Veal, both living on land adjoining the Indian Woods reservation, have several members of the Boon family residing in their homes.

There is also James Brown, the man who four of Patt Boone’s children – Lewis, Katie, Judah and Arthur were bound out to in 1774. According to land transactions found here and here, James Brown lived near the fork of the Cashie River, close to the Harrell family that frequently appears in the Bertie County records. This land is not immediately adjacent to the reservation but is still extremely close to the reservation as indicated in the map above.

Thomas Pugh Sr (1728-1806) and Thomas Pugh Jr (1748-1799)

When we closely examine Thomas Pugh Jr, the man who Rachel Boon’s probable daughter Sarah Boon was bound to, we see an even stronger connection between the Boon family and Indian Woods.

In 1778, the General Assembly of North Carolina appointed Thomas Pugh Sr. (1728-1806)William Williams, Willie Jones, Simon Turner and Zedekiah Stone as commissioners for the Indian Woods reservation. Roberta Estes provides additional information about the 1778 act:

It appointed William Williams, Thomas Pugh, Willie Jones and Simon Turner and Zedekiah Stone commissioners for the Indians and empowered the said commissioners to hold courts, etc. for the redress of the grievances of the Indians. It further enacted that the land leased by the Tuscarora Indians to Jones, Williams and Pugh and to other persons prior to ’77 “shall revert to and become the property of the State at the expiration of the terms of the several leases mentioned, if the said Nation to then extinct. And the lands now belonging to and possessed by the said Tuscaroras shall revert to and become the property of the State whenever the said Nation shall become extinct, or shall entirely abandoned or remove themselves off the said lands and every part thereof.

Source: http://nativeheritageproject.com/2012/10/10/tuscarora-people-identified-in-land-and-other-transactions-part-3/

In 1766, Thomas Pugh, Robert Jones, and William Williams had leased 8,000 acres of reservation land from the Tuscarora. The money from this lease was used to relocate some of the Tuscarora to upstate New York to rejoin the Haudenosaunee Confederacy:

Between James Allen, John Wiggins, Billy George, Snipnose George, Bille Cain, Charles Cornelius, Thomas Blount, John Rogers, George Blount, Wineoak Charles, Bille Basket, Bille Owens, Lewis Tuffdick, Isaac Miller, Harry Samuel, Bridgers Thomas, Senicar[1] Thomas Howett, Bille Sockey, Bille Corelius, John Senicar, Thomas Baskett, John Cain, Billy Denis, William Taylor, Owins John Walker, Bille Mitchell, Bille Netop, Billy Blount, Tom Jack, John Litewood, Billy Robert, James Mitchell, Capt. Joe and William Pugh, Chieftains and Principal persons of that part of the Nation of Indians commonly called Tuskarora Indians dwelling in the county of Bertie in the Province of NC on the one part and Robert Jones, Jr., his majesty’s attorney general of the province aforesaid and William Williams and Thomas Pugh of the said province, gentlemen of the second part. Witnesseth that the said Tusckarora Indians as well for and in consideration of the sum of 1500 pounds proclamation money to them in hand paid or secured to be paid for their own use and for the use of the rest of that part of the said Nation of Tuscarora dwelling in the county and Province aforesaid. As for the yearly rents and covenants herein after mentioned have demised granted and to form let and by these presents in behalf of themselves and their said nation to demise ??? and to form let unto the said Robert Jones Jr., William Williams and Thomas Pugh, all that dividend or tract of land lying and being on the North side of Roanoke River in Bertie County and bounded as follows, to wit. Beginning at the mouth of Deep Creek otherwise known as Falling River then running up the sand creek to the ?? or head line thence by the said line south 50 ?? degrees East 1280 poled thence with the course of said Creek to Roanoke River and the River to the beginning….together with appurtenances….unto the said Robert Jones, William Williams and Thomas Pugh….8000 acres of land to be enjoyed severally, each holding one third equal part…for the term of 150 years….to be paid yearly every year one peppercorn if demanded on the feast of St. Michael. This deed was registered in the September Court of 1767.

Source: http://nativeheritageproject.com/2012/10/12/tuscarora-people-identifed-in-land-and-other-transactions-part-5/

Again in 1775, Thomas Pugh, William Williams, and Willie Jones leased 2,000 acres of reservation land from the Tuscarora:

298-(316) Whitmell Tufdick, Wineoak Charles Jr., Billie Roberts, Lewis Tufdick, West Tufdick, Billie Blunt Sr., Billie Blunt Jr., John Rodgers, John Smith, Billie Pugh, Billie Baskit, John Hicks, Samuel Bridgers, John Owens, James Mitchell, Isaac Cornelius, Tom Tomas, & Walter Gibson, chieftans of the Tuskarora Indians to Thomas Pugh, Willie Jones & William Williams. 2 Dec 1775. For the yearly rent of 80 Duffield Blankets, 80 Oznatrig Shirts, 80 prs of boots, 50 pounds of powder & 150 pounds of shot. 2000 acres which was part of the land called the Indian Lands, joining Town Swamp, the old path that leads to Unarowick Swamp, James Wiggins, Unrinta Road, Quitana Swamp, Rocquist, Jones, Williams, Pugh, excepting 300 acres Watking now tends. Signed by: Bille(x)Cain, John Hicks, John Rogers, John(X)Owen, James(X)Hicks, Bille(x)Smith, Bille(x)Mitchell, Billie(x)Pugh, Wineoak(x)Chalres, James(X) Mitchell, Bille(X)Blunt, Jr., Saml(X)Bridgers, Tom Roberts.

Source: http://www.coastalcarolinaindians.com/bertie-county-deed-book-m-1777-various-abstracts/

And again in 1777, Thomas Pugh leased 100 acres of reservation land from the Tuscarora:

297-(315) Whitmell Tufdick, William Roberts, William Blount, Lewis Tufdick, John Randal, William Pugh, James Mitchel, Winoak Charles, William Basket, John Owens, Thomas Roberts, Walter Gibson, Billy Cane chieftans of the Tuscarora Indians in Bertie County to Thomas Pugh Sr. of same. 28 May 1777. The lease for 99 years @ 8 pounds per year of 100 acres, joining Black Gut Neck on Town Swamp, Roanoke River. Signed by: Billy (x) Blunt, Wineoak (x) Charles, Ben (x) Smith, Walter (X) Gibson, Thomas (X) Roberts, John (X) Ra nndel, Whitmell (x) Tuffdick, Billey (X) Cane, Lewis (x) Tufdick, Billey (x) Baskit, William (x) Pugh, Williams (x) Roberts, James (x) Mitchell. WITNESSES: Zedekiah Stone Jr., Thomas Whitmell Jr., May Ct 1777. John Johntston CJC

Source: http://www.coastalcarolinaindians.com/bertie-county-deed-book-m-1777-various-abstracts/

Thomas Pugh Sr’s son Thomas Pugh Jr, who Sarah Boon was bound out to, was a witness to a reservation land lease between the Tuscarora and Zedekiah Stone (one of the Indian Woods reservation commissioners) in 1777:

296-(314) Articles of agreement between WHITMELL TUFDICK, WILLIAM ROBERTS, WILLIAM CAIN, WILLIAM BLOUNT, TOM SMITH, JOHN SMITH, & LEWIS TUFDICK of Bertie Co., chieftans of the Tuscarora Indians on Roanoke River to ZEDEKIAH STONE of same. 10 Feb 1777. Sd chieftains were desirous that sd STONE should clear land, joining Coniack Neck, TITUS EDWARDS, Cesars Island, the river. Sd STONE agrees not to disturb JOSEPH LLOYD & THOMAS SMITH & SARAH HICKS. Sd STONE will be permittd to occupy the sd land for the space of 99 years. SIGNED BY: William Basket, Molley Smith, Benja. Smith, Sarah Hicks, Sarah Baskett, Watt & Gibson, Whitmell Tuffdick, Thomas (x) Smith, John Rodgers, Samuel Bridgers, William Roberts, Wineoak Charles, ZEdekiah Stone, John Owens, Thomas Baskett, William (x) Caine, Edward (x) Blount, John (x) Smith, James (x) Mitchell, John (x) Randle, William (x) Blount, Lewis (x) Tufdick, William (x) Pugh, West Whitmell (x) Tuffdick. WITNESSES: Thomas Pugh, Jr., Titus Edwards, Thos. Pugh, Sr.. May Court 1777. John Johnston Clerk of Court

Source: http://www.coastalcarolinaindians.com/bertie-county-deed-book-m-1777-various-abstracts/

You will also notice that one of the Tuscarora chieftans on the land deeds named “William Pugh” likely adopted his Pugh surname from Thomas Pugh Sr. Clearly the Pugh family was closely involved with the Tuscarora at Indian Woods in a formal and personal capacity. Sarah Boon being a Tuscarora girl bound out to the Pugh family who are commissioners and leasers of the Indian Woods reservation makes sense.

I believe a reasonable explanation for all the above historical records is that the Boon family were Tuscarora from the Indian Woods reservation. That is why there are no early land purchases or estate records associated with them because they were living on communally owned reservation land. Due to increasing impoverished and deteriorating conditions and with many of the Tuscarora families moving up North or away from the reservation, the Boon family were forced to place their children as indentured servants in the homes of neighboring white families. This is why the Boones seem to suddenly emerge out of nowhere in the court records in the 1760s/1770s. This was the exact same time that large numbers of Tuscarora were moving North and leasing their reservation land to the same men who many members of the Boon family were bound out to.


Descendants of Patt Boon

Lewis Boone (born 1757-1844):

Patt Boon’s son Lewis Boone (1757-1844) was bound out in 1774 in Bertie County. He then appears in the 1800 census for Northampton County, NC and in the 1810, 1820, and 1830 censuses for Halifax County (his household was enumerated in every census as “free colored”). Lewis filed a Revolutionary War pension application (excerpts found here) in 1843 in Halifax County which confirmed that he was born in Bertie County and lived a short while in Northampton County before relocating to Halifax County. The pension application includes some very important details about Lewis Boone’s service which further verifies the Boone family’s origins with the Tuscarora at Indian Woods.

Lewis Boone enlisted via the draft in 1778 in Bertie County with Uriah Dunning and served under Captain James Blount of the 10th Regiment. Lewis Boone also indicated that Captain William Williams marched him from Bertie County to Halifax which is where he enlisted under Captain Blount. This Captain William Williams is the same William Williams who was appointed as a commissioner of the Indian Woods reservation in 1778 and whose name appears on several Indian Woods land leases with previously mentioned Thomas Pugh. Captain James Blount who commanded Lewis Boone’s regiment, was from the Blount family who was the namesake for Tuscarora chief – “King Blount”.  It was not uncommon for Native Americans to adopt the names of “friendly” colonists. The pension application did not list the names of Lewis Boone’s wife or children. However through the rejected Cherokee Dawes and Eastern Cherokee/Guion Miller applications that were filed by Lewis Boone’s descendants, we know who some of his children were. Many non-Cherokee Native American families from North Carolina were often mislabeled and sometimes self-identified as Cherokee, which resulted in these families applying for Cherokee status. This will be a subject of a future blog post. Cherokee anthropologist Robert K. Thomas, who did fieldwork in the mid 1970s to investigate the claims of many of the self-identified “Cherokee” communities of the Southeast, had this to say about the Tuscarora heritage of the Haliwa-Saponi (the tribal community of Lewis Boone’s descendants):

They do not accept the term Haliwa and refer to themselves as Cherokee although the term Haliwa is gaining more acceptance as time goes on. This tribe appears from the research I have done, to be the remnants of the North Carolina Tuscaroras. When the Tuscaroras fled north in the early 1700s they left a large body, of so-called neutral Tuscarora, on a reservation just to the east of the modern Haliwa country near Windsor, North Carolina. There were several hundred Indians left on that reservation after the “hostile” Tuscaroras fled north and became part of the Iroquois League in New York. Slowly throughout the 1700’s, parties of Indians left that reservation and joined their brethren in New York. In the first decade of the 1800’s the few remaining Tuscarora sold their lands at Windsor, North Carolina. It appears they simply moved west a few miles to the present Haliwa area. There were a few other Indians, possibly Tuscarora, already living in that area. In any case, it appears that the Haliwa are remnants of the neutral Tuscarora.

Source: http://works.bepress.com/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1023&context=robert_thomas

The Haliwa-Saponi tribe officially states to be descended mostly from the Saponi, Tuscarora, and Nansemond tribes. Like Thomas, historian and Haliwa-Saponi tribal member Marvin Richardson also noted the very short distance between the Indian Woods reservation and the Haliwa community:

The Tuscarora Reservation, known as Reskooteh Town and Indian Wood, was located in Bertie County, North Carolina, approximately thirty miles east of the modern Haliwa-Saponi community. The reservation consisted initially of 40,000 acres, bordered eastern Halifax County, and included a village known as the Sapona Town. By 1734 some Nansemond were also living with the Nottoway Indians in Virginia, and other Nansemond had resettled near the Tuscarora in North Carolina.

Source: http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/nc-american-indians/7266

Lewis Boone’s children:

1. Dorcas Boone born about 1794 was married to Hardy Richardson, son of Benjamin Richardson and Mary Bass (of the Nansemond Bass family). Dorcas Boone and her husband Benjamin Richardson are the progenitors of many of the Richardsons in the Haliwa-Saponi tribe. Dorcas’ Native identity is asserted in the Richardson family’s rejected 1896 Cherokee Dawes applications and rejected 1906 Eastern Cherokee/Guion Miller application, where she is referred to as being an Indian doctor and midwife. Some of Dorcas’ descendants list her maiden name as “Pope” despite Lewis Boone being Dorcas’ father. It is likely that Lewis Boone’s wife/Dorcas’ mother was a Pope.

Testimony from W.K.A. Williams in support of the Richardson family's 1896 Dawes Cherokee application....
Testimony from W.K.A. Williams in support of the Richardson family’s 1896 Cherokee Dawes application, “… that the old woman Darkis or Darcus (the wife of Hardie) was a midwife and as such officiated at affiants birth and that the affiant afterwards knew her quite well, that she was said to be a full Cherokee Indian and that all of the Richardsons have the peculiar Indian appearance and this affiant is satisfied that they are all of Indian blood and so testifies.
W.K.A. William”
Source: The National Archives
On the right Eliza Louisa Richardson (1822-?) and her niece Emily Lucretia Richardson (1840-?). Eliza Louisa Richardson was the daughter of Hardy Richardson and Dorcas Boone. This photo was submitted with the Richardson family's rejected Dawes Cherokee applications in 1898. Source: The National Archives
On the right Eliza Louisa Richardson (1828-1908) and on the left her niece Emily Lucretia Richardson (1840-before 1920). Eliza Louisa Richardson was the daughter of Hardy Richardson and Dorcas Boone. This photo was submitted with the Richardson family’s rejected Cherokee Dawes applications in 1896. Descendants are today part of the Haliwa-Saponi tribe in Halifax/Warren Counties.
Source: The National Archives

2. Caroline Boone born about 1810 was unwed and had one son named William Boone. In William Boone’s Dawes application, which can be found fully transcribed on researcher Deloris Williams’ website here, he verified that his mother Caroline was Dorcas’ sister. From William Boone’s 1896 rejected Dawes application, it states:

Your petitioner WM. BOONE the undersigned respectfully states that he is a Cherokee Indian by blood and asks to be enrolled as a member of the Cherokee Nation of Indians in the Indian Territory.
That he derives his Indian blood from his grandfather LEWIS BOONE who was the father of CAROLINE BOONE, who was the mother of petitioner. CAROLINE BOONE and DARCUS RICHARDSON were sisters and both were Cherokee Indians by blood.

William Elias Boone (1890-1964) was the son of William Bone and Sallie Ann RIchardson. His grandmother was Carolina Boone and his great-grandfather was Lewis Boone. He is pictured here with his sister-in-law Annie Ruth Richardson. Source: Tony Copeland
William Elias Boone (1890-1964) was the son of William Boone and Sallie Ann Richardson. His grandmother was Carolina Boone and his great-grandfather was Lewis Boone. William Elias Boone is listed in his father William Boone’s rejected Dawes application and additional information on him can be found on Deloris Williams’ website here. He is pictured here with his sister-in-law Annie Ruth Richardson. Their family is from the Haliwa-Saponi tribe in Halifax/Warren Counties.
Source: Tony Copeland

3. William Boone was born about 1790 and was most likely a son of Lewis Boon though I’d like additional confirmation of their relationship. William’s descendants ofter intermarried with the descendants of Hardy Richardson and Dorcas Boone. Wife Fanny’s maiden name is unknown.

Philmore Boone (1876-1963) was the son of Spencer Boone and Sarah Susan Richardson. His grandfather was Leonard Boone, his great-grandfather was William Boone and 2nd great-grandfather was Lewis Boone. He is pictured with his wife Gertie Eatma in Nash County, NC. Source: Ancestry, Username: toakley109
Philmore Boone (1876-1963) was the son of Spencer Boone and Sarah Susan Richardson. His grandfather was Leonard Boone, his great-grandfather was William Boone and 2nd great-grandfather was Lewis Boone. He is pictured with his wife Gertie Eatma in Nash County, NC.
Source: Ancestry, Username: toakley109

Arthur Boon (1773-?)

Patt Boon’s son Arthur Boon was born around 1773 and like his brother Lewis Boone, he was also bound out in 1774 in Bertie County. In the 1790 census, Arthur Boon was recorded in Hertford County, head of a household of 6 “Free colored persons”. I cannot locate him in the census again until the 1840 census where he was recorded living alone in Northampton County, head of his own household of 1 free colored male. However directly under Arthur Boon’s name in the 1840 census, is his probable daughter Rebecca Boon (born 1805). This is the Rebecca Boon who is the progenitor of the Granville County Boon family. Arthur most likely had other children but but I do not have them identified at this time.

In the 1840 census for Northampton County, Arthur Boon is listed in the census directly next to his probable daughter Rebecca Boon. Source: 1840; Census Place: Northampton, North Carolina; Roll: 366; Page: 111; Image: 229; Family History Library Film: 0018096
In the 1840 census for Northampton County, Arthur Boon is listed in the census directly next to his probable daughter Rebecca Boon.
Source: 1840; Census Place: Northampton, North Carolina; Roll: 366; Page: 111; Image: 229; Family History Library Film: 0018096

Evans Family of Granville County – descendants of Jane Gibson “a free Indian woman”

The Native American/”free colored” Evans family of Granville County directly descend from Morris Evans (1665-1739) and Jane Gibson (1660/1670 – 1738) of Charles City County, VA. The Evans family resettled in and became a core part of Granville County’s Native American community in the 1760s immediately following the initial settlement of the founding  Chavis, Harris, Hawley, Pettiford, Anderson, Bass, and Goins families. In this blog post I will document the Evans family from their earliest documented origins from a “free Indian woman” known as Jane Gibson the elder, to their settlement in Granville County. A word of caution: “Evans” is among the most common surnames dating back to colonial times, therefore not all “Evans” families are genealogically related. There were a few “free colored” Evans families originating in Virginia and it is not known if an how they may all be related. The focus of this blog post is about documenting the branch of the Evans family that begins with Morris Evans and his wife Jane Gibson. I do discuss two additional Evans families at the end, that may or may not be related.


Jane Gibson the Elder, “a free Indian woman”

Morris Evans’ (1665-1739) wife Jane Gibson (1660/1670-1738), had a mother also named Jane Gibson. To distinguish between the two women, the mother is referred to as Jane Gibson the elder (born 1640/1650). The elder Jane Gibson was called “a free Indian woman” by some of her descendants who were illegally enslaved. Though the Evans and Gibson families were free-born, that did not prevent some colonists from illegally enslaving them. Apparently, some of the descendants of Morris Evans and Jane Gibson’s  daughter Frances Evans (1700-1771) were enslaved by a colonist named Goodrich Lightfoot. They were originally “bound out” to Lightfoot to be indentured servants but he instead enslaved them and after his death, they were subsequently sold to several slave owners.  The enslaved Evans later sued for their freedom and provided information that they descended from a free Indian woman – Jane Gibson the elder.

The petition of Charles Evans, Amey Evans, Sukey Evans, Sisar Evans, Solomon Evans, Frankey Evans, Sally Evans, Milly Evans, Adam Evans and Hannah Evans holden in slavery by Lewis Allen, of the County of Halifax humbly sheweth: that your petitioners are descendants from Jane Gibson, a free Indian woman..

Source: http://freepages.family.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~genealogyfriend/evans/gib_evans.htm

You can review the documentation on Deloris Williams’ website where she has graciously transcribed the chancery court documents and it is really worth a read, if you’re not familiar with these records.

I also found in the Saint Stephen’s Parish records for New Kent County, that Goodrich Lightfoot (the man who enslaved the Evans) owned an “Indian” slave named Charles who died on October 9, 1722. I’m unsure if this Charles is from the Evans family, but it certainly appears Goodrich Lightfoot enslaved multiple Native Americans.

Source: The Parish Register of Saint Peter's, New Kent County, Va. from 1680 to 1787
Source: The Parish Register of Saint Peter’s, New Kent County, Va. from 1680 to 1787

Also noteworthy, the Native American/”free colored” Howell family of Granville County descends from a woman who was a servant in the home of Goodrich Lightfoot’s brother Sherwood Lightfoot of Saint Stephen’s Parish in New Kent County, VA. And after both the Evans and Howell families came to Granville County, they intermarried.

The exact tribal origin of the Evans family has also been a subject of a lot of debate among researchers. Morris Evans was noted as being a free person of color and we know from DNA testing that he was of at least partial African descent. It is unknown if his background included any Native American ancestry. Although he was born around 1665, the first confirmed records for him were at the end of his life in 1738. So there is a lot about Morris Evans’ early life that we do not know about.

However Morris Evans’ wife’s mother Jane Gibson the elder and thus his wife were noted as being “Indian”, yet no tribe specified. Charles City County, VA which is where Jane Gibson the elder resided, is located in the heart of Powhatan territory and perhaps that is where her tribal ancestry comes from. There is another Powhatan (specifically Nansemond) descended family of Granville County – the Basses, that I blogged about previously and the Evans intermarried with them in Granville. There was also a Walter Gibson recorded as a chieftan in the Tuscarora “Indian Woods” reservation land deeds in Bertie County, NC in the 1770s. However, I have not seen any credible information that names his parents or children, so I’m not sure if he is at all connected to Jane Gibson of Charles City County. Another matter to consider is that Morris Evans and Jane Gibson’s son Charles Evans moved to southside Virginia by the 1730s, about a decade after the Saponi reservation at nearby Fort Christanna was closed. Charles Evans and his family  intermarried with the Saponi descendants residing in Virginia. The maiden name of Charles Evans’ wife is unknown, so more research into her identity is needed.


The Evans Move from the Tidewater to Southside Virginia

The Evans family line that came to Granville were not enslaved and as a result, they are well documented. Morris Evans and Jane Gibson also had two sons named Charles Evans (1696-1760) and Morris Evans Jr (1710-1754). Charles and Morris Jr were born in the Tidewater area of Virginia (York County) like their parents, but relocated to the southside Virginia counties of Brunswick, Mecklenburg, and Lunenburg (Lunenburg was formed from Brunswick in 1746 and Mecklenburg was formed from Lunenburg in 1765). Charles Evans moved first in the 1730s and his younger brother Morris Evans Jr moved later in the 1750s. Living next to the Evans families in Southside Virginia during this time period were other notable “free colored”/Native American families such as: Walden, Kersey, Harris, Brandon/Branham, Stewart, Chavis, Guy and Corn. I point this out because the Evans intermarried with most of these Southside families and they then moved together into the North Carolina border counties, including Granville.

Morris Evans Jr (1710-154) was married to a white woman named Amy Poole, who was the daughter of William Poole. After Morris Evans’ death, Amy remarried a John Wright and became known as “Amy Wright”. Her father William Poole in 1753, gave land in Lunenburg Co, VA to Morris Evans Jr and Amy Poole’s son named Richard Evans (1750-1794). This same Richard Evans later moved to Robeson Co, NC and is the most likely ancestor of the Evans family found within the Lumbee Tribe of Robeson Co.

Charles Evans (1696-1760) remained in southside Virginia until his death in 1760 and we have a good record of who his children were through land transactions and wills. Unfortunately not much is known about Charles Evans’ wife aside from her first name being Sarah. Charles Evans’ children were:

  1. Thomas Evans (b. 1734) – tithable in his father’s 1751 Lunenburg Co household. Was in very poor economic standing as his children were bound out because he could not provide for them. Thomas only received one shilling from his father’s will because he was “undutiful”. His wife may have been a Stewart. Some of his children intermarried with the “free colored”/Native American Jeffries family and moved to Orange Co, NC. This is the same Jeffries family that is a core family of the Occaneechi Band of the Saponi Nation.
  2. Major Evans (1733-1814) – moved to Granville Co, NC and is the primary ancestor of the Evans of Granville Co. Will be discussed in the next section.
  3. Charles Evans (b. 1737) – remained in southside Virginia. In 1782, he was compensated for beef he provided to the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War. His daughter Nanny Evans married Eaton Walden.
  4. Richard Evans (b. 1740) – remained in southside Virginia. He did not leave a will, so his apparent children are not verified. He may be the father of Richard Evans b. 1772 who relocated to Chatham Co, NC. An earlier Isaac Evans (b. 1735) was the first “free colored” Evans to appear in the Randolph Co (which borders Chatham) records, so some of the apparent descendants of Richard Evans may in fact be the descendants of Isaac Evans. And it is not currently known if and how Isaac Evans may be related to the family of Morris Evans/Jane Gibson.
  5. Sarah Evans (b. 1742)  – mentioned in her father’s will but unknown what happened to her next
  6. Joyce Evans (b. 1743) – mentioned in her father’s will but unknown what happened to her next
  7. Erasmus Evans (b. 1745) – had two sons named Anthony and Isham who were bound out. Anthony was called “Anthony Chavis”, so Erasmus’ wife was likely a Chavis. Anthony Evans/Chavis moved around a bit before settling in Chatham Co where he left a will but apparently no heirs.

From here, we will focus our discussion on Charles Evans’ son Major Evans (1733-1814) who is the main progenitor of the Evans in Granville County.


Major Evans (1733-1814) comes to Granville County

Charles Evans’ son Major Evans (1733-1814) who is the direct lineal ancestor of the vast majority of the Granville County Evans first appears in the Granville tax lists in the 1760s. By the 1780s and 1790s he had recorded several land transactions in Granville and short-lived Bute County (modern Franklin and Warren). Notably in 1780, he purchased 100 acres of land from Phillip Chavis off the Tar River in an area known as the Buffalo Race Path near Buffalo Creek. Phillip Chavis also sold Major Evans an additional 500 acres along the Granville/Franklin line. Phillip Chavis (b. 1726) was the son of William Chavis (1706-1778) – the original Granville land owner and founding community member. Phillip Chavis had numerous land transactions with his father William Chavis around Buffalo Creek and he also settled his father’s estate. In fact, Major Evans’ wife Martha Ann (maiden name unknown) may have been a Chavis given the close relationship between Major Evans and the William Chavis family.

It’s also important to remember that William Chavis’ wife was Frances Gibson was the daughter of Gibson Gibson (1660-1727) of Charles City County, VA. Perhaps Jane Gibson the elder and Gibson Gibson were related, given the shared Gibson surname in the same location. We know from witness testimony that Jane Gibson the elder had two children – Jane Gibson the younger who married Morris Evans and a son named George Gibson (born 1665) who died without having children. So William Chavis’ father-in-law Gibson Gibson could not have been a son of Jane Gibson the elder, but perhaps a brother or nephew. This is only speculation at the moment and hopefully some more documentation may confirm these suspicions.

Phillip Chavis land sold to Major Evans in 1780. Buffalo Race Paths - Granville County.
16 Feb 1780 Granville County, North Carolina – Phillip Chavis sells land along the “Buffalo Race Paths” to Major Evans. This land is very close to the Granille (now Vance) and Franklin County border
Major Evans land purchase on the Buckhorn Branch in Newlight Creek in far southeastern Granville County, close to the Franklin and Wake County borders.
Major Evans land purchase on the Buckhorn Branch in Newlight Creek in far southeastern Granville County, close to the Franklin and Wake County borders.
Circled in red are the approximate locations of Major Evans land purchases in and around Granville County.  There are at least two locations named
Circled in red are the approximate locations of Major Evans land purchases in and around Granville County. There are at least two locations named “Buffalo Race Paths” – one in Shocco township, Warren County where the old Bute County courthouse was located and one located on the Granville (now Vance) and Franklin county line. Major Evans’ “Buffalo Race Paths” land appears to be the latter one. This land bordered the Chavis family land and Snelling family land. The Snellings are Chavis descendants and intermarried with the Evans.
Source: http://dc.lib.unc.edu/cdm/singleitem/collection/ncmaps/id/3569

Whatever the exact relationship between Major Evans and the Chavis family turns out to be, these land transactions placed Major Evans and his family in the heart of the Granville County Native American community. It’s also important to note that Major Evans still owned land in Mecklenburg County, VA and appears on the tax lists there in the 1780s, so he likely was moving back and forth (a very short distance) between his Mecklenburg County property and his Granville County property. This close relationship between the two locations explains why many other the Native American/”free colored” families from the Mecklenburg area including the Howell, Guy, KerseyBrandon/Branham, Cousins, and Mayo families (most of whom had intermarried with the Evans) continued moving into Granville up through the first couple of decades of the 1800s. There was a Major Evans recorded in the Warren County tax list for the Six Pound District in 1814 and if this is the same Major Evans which it likely is, then it shows he moved yet again in his final years.

Nearly all of Major Evans’ children and descendants intermarried with families from the Granville Native American community. Below is a list of his children and their spouses:

1. * Morris Evans (1750-1834) married second Lydia Anderson, his first wife is unknown.

2. * Gilbert Evans (1757-1827) married Phoebe Lumbley. Phoebe was apparently white, and Gilbert appears in tax and census records as white as do their children. Because of strict laws forbidding interracial marriages, it could be that Gilbert “passed” for white in order to have a white spouse. This is a pattern that I have seen before.

3. Burwell Evans (1758-1820) married Mary Mitchell.

4. * John Evans (1759-1781) unwed and died in battle during the Revolutionary War.

5. Elizabeth Evans (1780-before 1860) married Isaac Chavis but they later separated.

6. Nelly Evans (1762-1849) married William Taborn

7. * William Evans (1764-1823) married Sarah Hays who was apparently white. Like his brother Gilbert, William “passed” for white and it was likely because he had a white spouse.

8. Sarah Evans (1770 – before 1860) married George Anderson.

* Paul Heinegg in his Evans family sketch on his website freeafricanamericans, lists the brothers Morris, Gilbert, John, and William Evans as the *possible* sons of Gilbert Evans b. 1730. However genealogist Deloris Williams has more up to date research on the Evans family and I agree with her conclusions.

Most of these families resided in Granville and Wake Counties. It is likely Major Evans’ land purchase in Newlight Creek which borders Wake County, precipitated the movement of many of his descendants into Wake.

The interconnectedness of the Evans family to the Granville County Native American community is also evident in the division of the estate of William Evans (1789-1871), a resident of Fishing Creek, Granville County. Deloris Williams has transcribed his estate record here. William was the grandson of Major Evans. Though William Evans had been married to Frances Anderson, by the time of his death he was widowed and had no living heirs. So instead he divided his estate among some members of the Native American community including the Anderson, Boon, Pettiford, Hawley, Mayo, Curtis, Taborn, Jones, and Evans families.

Below are some pictures of Granville County Evans who are directly descended from Major Evans (and further back descended from Morris Evans and Jane Gibson):

Pantheyer Brandon (1851-1934). She was the daughter of Hilliard Evans and Betsy Brandon. Because her parents were unwed, she took her mother's last name. Though Pantheyer's marriage record to Junius Thomas Howell lists her father as
Pantheyer Brandon (1851-1934) of Fishing Creek, Granville County. She was the daughter of Hilliard Evans and Betsy Brandon. Because her parents were unwed, she took her mother’s last name. Though Pantheyer’s marriage record to Junius Thomas Howell lists her father as “unknown”, Hilliard Evans identity was confirmed through Pantheyer’s brother Osh Brandon’s marriage record. Pantheyer’s sister Hilliard “Hettie” Brandon was also named after their father. Pantheyer’s mother Betsy Brandon later had several more children with William Peace. Hilliard Evans later married Louisa Mitchell and relocated to Ohio. Probably only his oldest children with Betsy Brandon had memories of him before he moved out of state.
Source: Ancestry, Username: rthomas1973

Pantheyer Brandon’s lineage back to Major Evans is as follows:

Pantheyer Brandon; Hilliard Evans; Thomas Evans; Morris Evans; Major Evans.

She is also descended from the Brandon, Bass, and Anderson families.

John Evans (1830 - 1892) and his wife Martha Harris. John was the son of Polly Evans and an unknown father. His mother Polly later married Johnson Reed. The family relocated to Ohio by 1860. Source: E. Howard Evans
John Evans (1830 – 1892) and his wife Martha Harris. John was the son of Polly Evans and an unknown father. His mother Polly later married Johnson Reed. The family relocated to Ohio by 1860. John Evans was first cousins to Pantheyer Brandon pictured above.
Source: E. Howard Evans

John Evans’ lineage back to Major Evans is as follows:

John Evans; Polly Evans; Thomas Evans; Morris Evans; Major Evans

John Evans is also descended from the Bass and Anderson families.

Standing on the left if John Evans' son Thomas McDaniel Evans  (1861-1929). Standing to his right is Thomas' son Howard Evans and seated is Thomas' daughter Ruth Evans. John Evans moved to Ohio by 1860, where his family continued to live. Source: E. Howard Evans
Standing on the left is John Evans’ son Thomas McDaniel Evans (1861-1929). Standing to his right is Thomas’ son Howard Evans and seated is Thomas’ daughter Ruth Evans. John Evans moved to Ohio by 1860, where his family continued to live.
Source: E. Howard Evans
Mary Etta Guy (1866 - 1965) a resident of Fishing Creek, Granville County. Mary Etta descends from several Granville County Native American families. She descends from the Evans (Morris Evans-Jane Gibson), Taborn, Guy, and Chavis families and was married to a Tyler. Mary Etta spent her entire life in Fishing Creek until after her husband's death in 1943 when she joined some of her family who had relocated to New York. Source: Carole Allen
Mary Etta Guy (1866 – 1965) a resident of Fishing Creek, Granville County. Mary Etta descends from several Granville County Native American families. She descends from the Evans (Morris Evans-Jane Gibson), Taborn, Guy, and Chavis families and was married to a Tyler. Mary Etta spent her entire life in Fishing Creek until after her husband’s death in 1943 when she joined some of her family who had relocated to New York.
Source: Carole Allen
Ira Evans 1879-1968
Ira Evans (1879-1968) was the son of Lewis Evans (1847-1917) and  Zibra Bookram (b. 1859). His is a direct lineal descendants of Morris Evans/Jane Gibson through their grandson Major Evans. Ira descends from the Evans, Gibson, Bookram, Bass, Anderson, and Scott families and lived in Durham Co, NC. Source: Ancestry, Username: LaMonica Williams.
Ada Evans
Ada Evans (1885-1954) was the daughter of Thomas Evans and Mary Bookram. She is double first cousins with Ira Evans pictured above. Ada was first married to Earnest Day and second married to William Glover. She lived in Granville and Durham Counties. Please note that most family tree on Ancestry have confused this Ada Evans for her older first cousin Ada Evans ( b 1877) who was the daughter of Sallie Evans.  Source: Ancestry, Username: MichaelSmith493

What about the families of Thomas Evans (1723-1788) and James Evans (1720-1786)??

 

Evans Migration Map.004
Map following the movement of the Evans family. The Morris Evans-Jane Gibson line is shown in red, the James Evans line is shown in blue, and the Thomas Evans line is shown in purple. The dates indicate the earliest records for the Evans family in those locations. © Kianga Lucas

 

So as I mentioned at the beginning of the blog post, there were other early “free colored” Evans families in Virginia that may be related to Morris Evans/Jane Gibson. In particular, there are two two early Evans’ ancestors that need to be discussed.

 

Thomas Evans (1723-1788):

One family begins with a Thomas Evans (1723-1788) who lived in the southside Virginia counties of Lunenburg and Mecklenburg. His parents at this time are unknown. His wife’s name is also unknown but she was a Walden.  Thomas Evans and his descendants usually lived close to the known descendants of Morris Evans/Jane Gibson. In fact, this Thomas Evans (1723-1788), Charles Evans and Major Evans (grandsons of Morris Evans/Jane Gibson) all together on 9 April 1782 in Mecklenburg County court proved their claim to be paid for 225 lbs of beef they each supplied the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War. This suggests a close relationship between the three men (two of whom are documented siblings).

All of Thomas Evans’ children married other closely related Native American families of the area including Chavis, Brandon, Drew and Kersey. Thankfully Thomas Evans left a 1787 (proved 1788) Mecklenburg County will that named his heirs. His heirs were also named in a subsequent lawsuit. Many of Thomas’ descendants moved into and intermarried with the Native American community in Granville including his grandson Isaac Chavis who married and later separated from the previously mentioned Elizabeth Evans who was the daughter of Major Evans. Additional surnames that Thomas Evans’ descendants married into when they moved to North Carolina include: LocklearIvey and Hawley. All of this suggests a close relationship between Thomas Evans and the descendants of Morris Evans/Jane Gibson but I’m not sure what it is. I feel fairly confident that this Thomas Evans is related to Morris Evans/Jane Gibson but I’m still working on seeing where exactly he fits in.

Sally Kersey
Sally Kersey (1828-1911) was the daughter of Benjamin Kersey and Sally (maiden name not known). Her grandparents were William Kersey and Polly Evans. Polly Evans was a daughter of Thomas Evans (1723-1788). She was married to William Tyler and was a lifelong resident of the Native American community in Granvilly, in Fishing Creek township. Source: Ancestry, Username: wanhiehol

James Evans (1720-1786):

And second there is James Evans (1720-1786) who first appears in the records in Surry County, VA in 1746. In that year he was charged with adultery for living with Eleanor Walden. Eleanor is presumed to later be his wife and mother of his children. Unfortunately, Surry County suffered major record loss, so further details on James Evans’ early life may have been destroyed. Such records may have named his parents, because James’ parents are unknown. By the 1750s, James Evans was living in Edgecombe County, NC as indicated by land purchases and militia records. Notably James Evans is listed next to several members of the “free colored”/Native American Scott family that was of Saponi descent and these families later intermarried. This part of Edgecombe became Halifax County in 1758, and James Evans continues to appear in the Halifax records. By 1786, his wife Eleanor (Walden) Evans was listed as a head of household in the Halifax records, indicating that James had died some time previous to that date.

James Evans’ descendants continued living in the Halifax County area. Again, please note that Paul Heinegg has different information for the descendants of James Evans. Instead I’m using the genealogy provided by Deloris Williams which I believe is more accurate. James Evans had a son by the same name James Evans Jr (1750-1830) who lived in Halifax Co. James Jr had a son named Leven Evans (1775 – before 1850) who is the main source of the Evans found within the state-recognized Haliwa-Saponi tribe in Hollister. Leven Evans’ first wife was Kizzie but her maiden name is unknown. His second wife was Harriet Scott (b. 1811). Harriet was from the same Scott family that her grandfather James Evans (1720-1786) enlisted in the Edgecombe Co militia with. Leven Evans’ descendants continued to intermarry with “core” families of the Haliwa-Saponi tribe including Richardson, Lynch, Silver, Mills, and Copeland.

Recent DNA testing suggests that Leven Evans (1775-before 1850) is not a descendant of Morris Evans/Jane Gibson. At least 7 direct male lineal descendants of Morris Evans have done yDNA testing and their haplogroup is E-M2 which is a sub Saharan African haplogroup. At least one direct male lineal descendant of Leven Evans has done yDNA testing and his haplogroup is R1b which is Western European (most commonly Irish). This means we know that Leven Evans and Morris Evans do not share a common male Evans ancestor. But it’s possible that the Leven Evans branch may descend from a female Evans ancestor which would account for the different yDNA haplogroups. Like the paper trail, DNA results can offer a clue but not the full story about one’s heritage.

Fox Evans
Fox Evans (1882-1932) was the son of Elijah Evans and Jane Cornelia Richardson. He is a direct lineal descendant of James Evans (1720-1786) through Leven Evans. Fox Evans was married to Leacy Silver and lived in Halifax County, NC. Source: Ancestry, Username: lynnmcaldwell1
image1
Major Blake Evans (1879-1959) is pictured with his first wife Adeline Virginia Richardson (1876-1920). Major Blake Evans was a brother to Fox Evans pictured above. He is a direct lineal descendant of James Evans (1720-1786) through his grandson Leven Evans. Major Blake Evans lived in Halifax Co, NC his entire life where some of his descendants are among the Haliwa-Saponi tribe. Source: Desmond Ellsworth
image2
Pictured are children of Major Blake Evans (1879-1959) who resided in Halifax Co, NC. Source: Desmond Ellsworth

 

Mollie Evans
Mollie Evans (1892-1938) was the daughter of William Evans and Martha Richardson. She is also direct lineal descendant of James Evans (1720-1786) through Leven Evans. Mollie was married to Arch Silver and lived in Halifax County, NC. Source: Ancestry, Username: GwendolynJohnson84

Family Surnames for Granville County Native Americans

Welcome! The following is a list of surnames of closely related Native American families of Granville County. Please note that all the families are “free people of color”, meaning they were not enslaved and generally not recorded as “white”.

It is these families that most of the content of this blog is about. I have documentation on all of these families, so if you believe you are also researching the same families, please do get in touch.

Anderson

Bass

Boon(e)

Boswell/Baswell/Braswell

Brandon

Chavis/Chavers

Cousins

Curtis

Day(e)

Evans

Goins/Gowen

Guy

Harris

Hawley

Hedgepeth

Howell

Jones

Kersey

Locklear

Mayo

Mitchell

Parker

Pettiford

Richardson

Scott

Stewart

Taborn

Tyler