Important Update for Willis Bass of Granville County

One of the most common mistakes found in genealogical research is conflating multiple people into a single person. In an earlier blog post about my 5th great-grandfather Sherwood Harris (son of Edward Harris and Sarah Chavis), I discussed how even the War Department conflated the records of multiple men who shared the same name: Sherwood Harris. So it is understandable that in Paul Heinegg’s massive research on all “free colored people” from colonial times in the American South, he would likely commit a few of these mistakes.

One such error comes from Heinegg’s discussion about a man named Willis Bass (b. 1792). (Heinegg suggests his birthdate is 1787 but I have records which indicate 1792). By carefully reviewing the records that Heinegg provided and finding additional records to corroborate my suspicions, I am able to update and correct important info on Willis Bass. If you are a descendant of Willis Bass or just researching him, you will definitely want to update your records after reading this blog post. Most researchers use Heinegg’s material so hopefully he will update his website with this new info that I have provided.

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Family tree for Willis Bass that explains his family relationships. Records for all these individuals will be discussed below. © Kianga Lucas

 

Heingg’s Research on Willis Bass (b. 1792)

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Paul Heinegg’s section on James Bass who he proposes is the father of Willis Bass (b. 1792) of Granville Co. Note how there is not a single record of James Bass ever living in Granville Co or even North Carolina. Source: http://freeafricanamericans.com/bailey-berry.htm

James Bass (b. 1760) is who Heinegg suggests is the father of Willis Bass (b. 1792) of Granville County. Heinegg included a number of very helpful primary source documents for James Bass. We see he lived in Norfolk Co, VA for most of his life and later moved out to Tennessee where he filed a Revolutionary War pension application. What you do not see is a single record of James Bass in Granville Co, NC. Children do certainly move away from their parents at some point but to not have a single record for James Bass in Granville Co should immediately throw up some red flags. Let’s take a closer examination of the records.

We see that in the 1801 tax list for Norfolk Co, VA James Bass is listed with the names of members of his household. Included in his houshold is a Willis Bass, which is solid proof that James Bass had a son named Willis Bass. This tax list is the only record provided for the Willis Bass of Norfolk Co, VA. I do find James Bass in the Bedford Co, TN census records starting in 1820 and he is there along with several other “free colored” Bass head of households. These are most likely James Bass’ children and other close family members. If his son Willis Bass survived childhood and did move away from Norfolk Co, VA, he likely would have relocated with his family to Bedford Co, TN. So the Willis Bass of Norfolk, VA coming to Granville Co, NC just doesn’t make much sense or fit into the general trend for James Bass’ family. Let’s look at the records available for the Willis Bass of Granville Co.


 

Willis Bass (b. 1792) Apprenticeship Records

The earliest records that I found for Willis Bass are not included in Heinegg’s research. Ancestry recently made available to their members, Wills and Probate Records for North Carolina and included in the Granville County folder are also apprenticeship records. These records have been an incredible aide for me to verify or disprove genealogical relationships.

Willis Bass John Irby apprenticeship
Willis Bass, age 9 years, was bound out to John Irby on 8 May 1801 in Granville County. Source: North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998

On 8 May 1801, Willis Bass, age 9 years, was bound out to John Irby. On the exact same day, Racey Bass, age 11 years, was also bound out to John Irby. John Irby (1780-1841) was a resident of the Abrams Plains district of Granville County. This is an important detail because Willis Bass and Racey Bass are later shown living in the Abrams Plains District after their indentured servitude was over.

Racey Bass John Irby apprenticeship
Racey (“Rasey”) Bass, age 11 years, was bound out to John Irby on 8 May 1801 in Granville County. Source: North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998

The fact that Willis Bass and Racey Bass were bound out on the same day to the same person is strong evidence that they were siblings. Often times the courts would send out orders requesting that the children of a specific individual, be required to report to court to be bound out. But who were Willis and Racey’s parents? The Granville County court minutes, reveal that a few years earlier in May 1798, Racey Bass, was called the son of Milly Bass who was the wife of Pearson Hawley. The identified gender of Racey Bass is odd because the 1801 apprenticeship order to be bound to John Irby, identified Racey Bass as a female. For the time being I will continue to refer to Racey Bass as a female.

Racey Bass 1798 Court Minutes
Racey “Raisey” Bass, age about 8 years, is called the son of Milly Bass, wife of Pearson Hawley in the May 1798 Court Minutes. Racey was ordered to be bound to James H. Smith. Source: Dr. Warren Milteer

So who was Milly Bass? According to the court minutes, Milly Bass (b. 1772) was the wife of a Pearson Hawley (b. 1770). This means that Willis Bass and Racey Bass were born to Milly Bass before she married Pearson Hawley. And this explains why Willis Bass and Racey Bass were bound out because it was common for children born out of wedlock to be apprenticed out. Pearson is found in the Granville Co records beginning in 1791 and is in the 1800 census, head of a household of 5 “free colored” people. He is from the Saponi/Catawba Indian Hawley family that I previously blogged about here. The 1800 census is the last time I find Pearson Hawley in the Granville records, so I’m unsure of what later happened to him or his wife Milly Bass.

Milly Bass (b. 1772) was the apparent daughter of Benjamin Bass (1722-1802) and his wife Mary (maiden name not known). The Granville County bastardy bonds show that Milly Bass had children out of wedlock and that it was Jesse Chavis (1766-1840) who fathered those children. After making this blog post I made additional discoveries that you can read here, which reviews the evidence that supports Jesse Chavis being the father of Milly Bass’ children.

On 5 Aug 1803, Willis Bass and Racey Bass were bound out again to John Irby. I’m not sure why multiple apprenticeship orders were needed but it shows the pattern of siblings being bound out on the same date.


 

Willis Bass (b. 1792) in the Granville Co Census and Marriage Records

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This is Paul Heinegg’s discussion of Willis Bass (b. 1792). He jumps right into the Granville Co records without offering any evidence or insight as to why the Willis Bass of Granville Co was the same person as Willis Bass of Norfolk Co, VA. Heinegg includes the word “perhaps” to illustrate that he is not sure. All researchers need to pay close attention to these details. Source: http://freeafricanamericans.com/bailey-berry.htm

So if Willis Bass was bound out as a boy in Granville Co in 1801 and 1803, how could he be the son of someone who was living in Norfolk Co, VA during that time? The answer is that Willis Bass was not the son of James Bass of Norfolk Co, VA. And the apprenticeship records and court minutes of Granville Co identify the mother of Willis Bass and Racey Bass as Milly Bass.

The next time we find Willis Bass in the records was on 4 Jan 1809 when he married Olive Chavis. He was then counted in the 1810, 1820, and 1830 censuses for Granville Co. He lived in the Abrams Plains district which is a district in far northern Granville Co, immediately next to the Virginia state border. And this is the same district that he lived in when he was bound out to John Irby. Willis Bass’ 1810 household consisted of three people – himself, wife Olive, and a child. His sister Racey Bass was enumerated right next to him, head of a large household of 9 people. Willis Bass’ 1820 household consisted of 9 people (himself, wife Olive, 5 boys and 2 girls). His sister Racey Bass does not appear in the census again after 1810 and I wonder if some of the children in Willis’ 1820 household may have been his sister’s children. Willis Bass’ 1830 household consisted of 12 people (himself, wife Olive, 5 young men/boys, and 5 young women/girls).

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Willis Bass is enumerated in the 1810 census next to his sister Racey Bass. Note: the 1810 census was based off of alphabetical tax lists from each district in Granville County, so names listed next to one another are not necessarily neighbors. But names close to one another indicate living in the same district. in Source: Year: 1810; Census Place: Granville, North Carolina; Roll: 40; Page: 858; Image: 00228; Family History Library Film: 0337913
1820 willis bass
Willis Bass enumerated in the Abrams Plains district of Granville County in 1820. Source: Year: 1810; Census Place: Granville, North Carolina; Roll: 40; Page: 858; Image: 00228; Family History Library Film: 0337913

I also found that Willis Bass was twice the bondsman for marriages in Granville Co. He was the bondsman for the marriage between Joseph Peal and Jane Pettiford on 18 May 1822. Jane Pettiford was the daughter of Collins Pettiford and Polly Chavis (perhaps a family members of Willis Bass’ wife Olive Chavis). And Willis Bass was the bondsman for the marriage between Henry Bass and Eliza Hart on 26 Feb 1824. Henry Bass (b. 1800) is too old to be Willis’ son, but perhaps he was a close relative. Henry Bass relocated to Ohio, specifically Ross County which is a couple of counties over from where some of Willis Bass’ descendants relocated to.


Willis Bass’ (b. 1792) Descendants Filed Eastern Cherokee Applications

So the last time Willis Bass appears in Granville Co is in the 1830 census and we know from the size of the household that he had a large family. We next learn about what happened to Willis Bass from the Eastern Cherokee (Guion Miller) applications that his descendants filed.

If you’re not familiar with the Guion Miller roll, here is a blurb from familysearch:

The Guion Miller Roll is a list of Eastern Cherokees who applied for money awarded in 1905 because of a 1902 lawsuit in which the Eastern Cherokee tribe sued the United States for funds due them under the treaties of 1835, 1836 and 1845. Claimants were asked to prove they were members of the Eastern Cherokee tribe at the time of the treaties, or descended from members who had not been affiliated with any other tribe. Guion Miller, an agent of the Interior Department, was appointed as a commissioner of the Court of Claims to compile a list of claimants. He made an extensive enrollment of the Cherokees in 1907 and 1908.

Source: https://familysearch.org/learn/wiki/en/The_U.S._Eastern_Cherokee_or_Guion_Miller_Roll

Even though the applications for Willis Bass’ descendants were rejected, they are full of important genealogical information about his family. I will be doing a blog post hopefully soon about why so many of our families were labeled “Cherokee” despite not being tribally Cherokee. In that blog post I will explore that phenomenon more in depth but for now you should at least be aware that “Cherokee” was often synonymous for “Indian” in the Southeast.

Descendants of Willis Bass who filed Eastern Cherokee applications: grandsons: Elijah Bass Jr (#17657) and Peter Bass (#44383); great-grandchildren: two named Alice Revels (#14050 and #14118), Charles Bass (#14052), Malissa Roberts (#16153), Delia McCann (#16156), Matilda Bostwick (#16155), Martha J Bass (#17656), Mansfield Bass (#17659), Ransom Bass (#18015), Martha Anderson (#18350), Rosa Bass (#19825), Nora Thomas (#19826), and Matilda Newville (#15670); and great-great grandchildren: William Newville (#24366), Alice Elizabeth Carman (#24379), and Charley Newville (#32952). All applicants claimed descent from Willis Bass and Olive Chavis’ son Elijah Bass Sr. I won’t discuss each application because they are quite repetitive. Instead I’ll focus on a couple of applications that provide the most pertinent info.

Elijah Bass Jr and Elizabeth Arnold
Elijah Bass Jr (1835-1912) with his wife Elizabeth Arnold. Elijah Jr was the son of Elijah Bass Sr and the grandson of Willis Bass and Olive Chavis of Granville Co, NC. Elijah Bass Jr filed a (rejected) Eastern Cherokee application # 17567. Source: Ancestry, Username: Anthony DI DIO

By the time of the Eastern Cherokee roll applications in 1907, some descendants of Willis Bass had relocated from Granville Co, NC to Lawrence Co, OH and finally to Vernon Co, WI. We learn from Elijah Bass Jr’s application, that Willis and Olive Bass had the following children: Elijah Bass Sr, William Bass, Henry Bass, Racey Bass, Ransom Bass, Nancy Bass, Polly Bass, and Delia Bass. Elijah Bass Sr was the only one to relocate to Ohio, while the others continued to live in North Carolina. We have already seen the name Racey Bass from the apprenticeship records which show that Willis Bass had a sister named Racey Bass. The Racey name was passed down a lot in the Willis Bass family, and was used by both males and females.

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A page from Elijah Bass Jr’s Eastern Cherokee application (#17657). Source: NARA M1104. Eastern Cherokee Applications of the U.S. Court of Claims, 1906-1909.
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Another page of Elijah Bass Jr’s Eastern Cherokee application (#17657). Source: NARA M1104. Eastern Cherokee Applications of the U.S. Court of Claims, 1906-1909.

Elijah Bass Jr states that he was born on 15 Oct 1835 in Granville Co but relocated with his father Elijah Bass Sr to Lawrence Co, OH a couple of years later. This is consistent with Elijah Bass Sr first appearing in the Lawrence Co, OH census in 1840. However, Elijah Sr’s marriage record to Matilda Dutton of Pennsylvania was recorded on 20 March 1835 in Lawrence Co, OH. It seems unlikely that Elijah Sr would go all the way to Ohio to marry a woman from elsewhere, return to Granville Co where his first son was born, and then a few years later go back to Ohio. In the 1850 census, Elijah Jr’s birthplace is listed as Ohio and every other census after that it was listed as North Carolina. I wonder if Elijah Jr thought he was  born in North Carolina, when he was actually born in Ohio.

Another inconsistency is found when Elijah Bass Jr identified his grandparents as Willis Bass and Olive Stewart. We know from their 1809 marriage record in Granville Co, that Olive’s maiden name was Chavis. It’s possible that she was first married to a Chavis, became widowed and then married Willis Basss. But I could find no marriage record for an “Olive Stewart”. The Stewarts were another large “free colored”/Native American family in the area, and I suspect that Olive’s mother was a Stewart. The Stewarts and Chavises intermarried a lot on both sides of the VA/NC border. Because I have not been able to identify Olive’s parents, I can’t say for certain how the Stewarts fit into her lineage.

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Elijah Bass Jr’s Eastern Cherokee application (#17657) includes a handwritten note to the commissioner. Source: NARA M1104. Eastern Cherokee Applications of the U.S. Court of Claims, 1906-1909.
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Second page of the hand written note by Elijah Bass Jr included in his Eastern Cherokee application (#17657). Source: NARA M1104. Eastern Cherokee Applications of the U.S. Court of Claims, 1906-1909.

In a letter dated 25 Feb 1908, Elijah Bass Jr writes directly to the Guion Miller commissioner to provide some additional background information about his family.There are some big inconsistencies in his narrative with what is found in the actual records. Elijah Jr states that his grandparents (Willis and Olive Bass) had to flee from Virginia into North Carolina in 1812 because they were driven out of their land by white people. And that his grandfather Willis Bass had previously lived on a (Cherokee) reservation in Virginia.

But we know from apprenticeship, marriage, and census records that Willis Bass was born in North Carolina and is in the Granville Co records before 1812. I think this misleading narrative is why Heinegg tried to force a connection between Willis Bass of Granville Co and the James Bass of Norfolk Co, VA. This is why examining the totality of all the records is vital when you have conflicting stories. I do not think Elijah Bass Jr fabricated this story completely and that there is likely some truth in there. The events that he is recalling, happened well before his was born, so that may partially account for the mistakes. But I also wonder if the story about fleeing Virginia for North Carolina was more about his grandmother Olive Chavis’ lineage. Willis Bass’ widow Olive Chavis was enumerated in the 1850, 1860 and 1870 censuses, and her birthplace is given as Virginia. And earlier on in the 1810, 1820, and 1830 censuses, Olive Chavis (counted in her husband Willis Bass’s household) lived close to Evans Chavis (1770-after 1860), Charles Chavis, and Isaac Chavis (1766-1831). These three men were from neighboring Mecklenburg Co, VA and perhaps were of some relation to Olive Chavis.

I can say with certainty that all the Basses in Granville Co all descend from two brothers: Edward Bass (1672-1750) and John Bass (1673-1732) who initially left Suffolk, VA for North Carolina in 1720 and whose descendants were in Granville Co by the 1750s. Edward and John Bass were the documented grandsons of British colonist John Bass(e) and his Nansemond Indian wife Elizabeth. If you’d like a good recap of the Bass family of Granville Co, read my previous blog post. So the Basses were well established in Granville Co before 1812.

Bass movement map.001
This map shows the movement of brothers Edward and John Bass from their Nansemond homeland in Virginia to North Carolina. All of Edward Bass’ children and three of John Bass’ children moved and settled in Granville County by the 1750s. © Kianga Lucas

When we look at Elijah Jr’s brother Peter Bass’ Eastern Cherokee application, we find some additional information. In the Guion Miller applications, there is space for respondents to write down their “Indian names”. Peter Bass lists his Indian name as “Peter Chavers” and lists his father Elijah Bass Sr’s Indian name as “Elijah Chavers”. So we can clearly see Willis Bass’ descendants were aware that they descended from the Chavers (Chavis) family. Also, Chavis/Chavers is not an “Indian name”.

Peter Bass
Peter Bass (1844-1922) was the son of Elijah Bass Sr and the grandson of Willis Bass and Olive Chavis of Granville Co. He filed a (rejected) Eastern Cherokee application #44383. Source: Ancestry, Username: rmcilquham1
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A page from Peter Bass’ Eastern Cherokee application (#44363). Source: NARA M1104. Eastern Cherokee Applications of the U.S. Court of Claims, 1906-1909.

As stated earlier, all of the Eastern Cherokee enrollment applications for Willis Bass’ descendants were rejected. On Alice Revels’ (#14050) application, the Guion Miller commission provided the exact reason why the family’s applications were rejected. The Willis Bass family was never listed on any previous Cherokee rolls, never lived with the Cherokees, and Granville Co was never part of original Cherokee territory.

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All applications filed by Willis Bass’ descendants were rejected. The commission provided the exact reasons on Alice Revels’ application (#14050). Source: NARA M1104. Eastern Cherokee Applications of the U.S. Court of Claims, 1906-1909.
Samuel Bass and Eliza Jane Murphy
Samuel Bass (1838-1906) with wife Eliza Jane Murphy. He was the son of Elijah Bass Sr and the grandson of Willis Bass and Olive Chavis of Granville Co, NC. Samuel died just before the Eastern Cherokee application process started. Source: Ancestry, Username: SchusterL41
Elizabeth Bass
Elizabeth Bass (1840-1902) was the daughter of Elijah Bass Sr and the granddaughter of Willis Bass and Olive Chavis of Granville Co, NC. Elizabeth died a few years before the Eastern Cherokee application process began. Source: Ancestry, Username: rmcilquham1
Ransom Bass
Ransom Bass (1861-1947) was the son of Elijah Bass Jr, grandson of Elijah Bass Sr, and great-grandson of Willis Bass and Olive Chavis of Granville County. Ransom filed a (rejected) Eastern Cherokee application (#18015). Source: Ancestry, Username: rmcilquham1
Matilda Bass
Matilda (Bass) Newville (1863-1933) was the daughter of Elijah Bass Jr, granddaughter of Elijah Bass Sr, and great granddaughter of Willis Bass and Olive Chavis of Granville County. Matilda filed a (rejected) Eastern Cherokee application (#15670). Source: Ancestry, Username: deborah3311
Mansfield Bass
Mansfield Bass (1870-1945) was the son of Elijah Bass Jr, grandson of Elijah Bass Sr, and great grandson of Willis Bass and Olive Chavis of Granville County. Mansfield filed a (rejected) Eastern Cherokee application (#17659). Source: Ancestry, Username:

Addendum

In February 2016, Paul Heinegg updated the Bass section of his website with some of the corrected information I discussed above. He no longer has the Willis Bass who was the son of James Bass b. 1760 of Norfolk CO, VA and Bedford Co, TN as the same Willis Bass of Granville Co. Heinegg also provided additional records for the James Bass b. 1760 of Norfolk Co, VA and Bedford Co, TN so if you are a descendant of the this branch of the Bass family, it is worthwhile to revisit Heinegg’s Bass section:

http://freeafricanamericans.com/bailey-berry.htm

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The Saponi/Monacan Indian Brandon/Branham Family of Granville County

The Brandons are a core family of Granville’s Native community that have intermarried with most of the other Native families. Originating in Southside Virginia, the Brandons came to Granville County in the 1820s, rejoining their Saponi relatives who had already established the community during the days of Indian trader Colonel William Eaton. I introduced the Brandon family in an earlier blog post about the Saponi Indian cabins that were reported in Amelia Co (modern Nottoway Co), Virginia in 1737. I will repost some of the content here but I recommend reading that blog post if you have not already done so.

The Brandon surname has been spelled a variety of ways including Brannum, Branham, Brandom, and Brandum. However for the sake of clarity and consistency, I will use the standardized “Brandon” spelling of the surname for the family in Granville Co, NC. But please be aware of the variety of spellings as you research this family. Also note that there were white Brandon/Branham families residing in the same areas as the “free colored”/Native American Brandon/Branham family. I have found no connection between the two populations, with the exception that they share the same surname. The family that is the topic of this blog post were consistently listed as “free colored” people with the exception of some later descendants who were identified as “white”.


Background on the Brandon Family:

The Brandon family descends from several Brandons living in Bristol Parish, Prince George Co, as well as surrounding areas of Brunswick Co. and Henrico Co. who first appear in the records in the 1720s, 1730s, and 1740s. It is not known exactly how all these Brandons relate to each other but a few Brandons who were born in the household of Godfrey and Elizabeth Ragsdale in Bristol Parish were most likely siblings and could be connected to the Saponi Indian cabins in Amelia County in 1737. Edward Brandon was bound to Godfrey Ragsdale on July 9, 1730 and in 1751, Edward Brandon was a tithable between the Flatt and Deep Creek districts of Amelia Co. As you will recall, Winningham Creek the site of the Saponi cabins runs off of Deep Creek in Amelia County. Margaret Brandon was born on Nov 7, 1720 and was bound to Godfrey Ragsdale on Oct 10, 1722. Doll “Dorothy” Brandon was bound to Godfrey Ragsdale on Jul 24, 1727.

Contemporaries to siblings Edward, Margaret and Doll Brandon, who are probably of some family relation to them include: Benjamin Branham b. 1721 who lived in Louisa Co, and Eleanor Branham/Brandon b. 1728 who lived in Brunswick and Lunenburg Cos. There was also an Edward Branham b. 1760 who was likely related to Benjamin Branham and Eleanor Branham/Brandon. Edward Branham b. 1760 first appears as a tithable in Amherst Co, VA in 1783 and he is the progenitor of the core Branham family (this family used the standardized “Branham” spelling) of the state recognized Monacan Tribe in Amherst Co, VA. Current Chief Dean Branham is a direct lineal descendant. The Monacan are another Eastern Siouan tribe that once comprised a confederacy that included the Saponi.

Family tree of the Brandon/Branham family. The Brandons bound out to Godfrey and Elizabeth Ragsdale may be connected to the Saponi Indian cabins. The other Brandon/Branhams are connected to known Saponi/Eastern Siouan communities. © Kianga Lucas
Family tree of the Brandon/Branham family. The Brandons bound out to Godfrey and Elizabeth Ragsdale may be connected to the Saponi Indian cabins. The other Brandon/Branhams are connected to known Saponi/Eastern Siouan communities.
© Kianga Lucas
Map showing the precise location of the Saponi Indian cabins within what is now Nottoway Co, VA. Source: http://bridgehunter.com/va/nottoway/big-map/
Map showing the precise location of the Saponi Indian cabins within what is now Nottoway Co, VA. This is where some of the early Brandons lived.
Source: http://bridgehunter.com/va/nottoway/big-map/

Eleanor Brandon b. 1728

We don’t know much about Eleanor Brandon except for the records of her children that were bound out. Based upon the dates of when her children were bound out, Paul Heinegg in his research on the Brandon family suggests that she was born around 1728.

On 24 Jul 1753 in Brunswick County, VA, Eleanor’s children – Thomas and Molly/Mary Brandon were bound out. And on 29 January 1755, her children Thomas Brandon, Molly/Mary Brandon, and Viney Brandon were bound out again in Brunswick Co. There is no record of who her children were bound out to. Brunswick Co is the location of Fort Christanna, the former Saponi reservation that was closed in 1718. Many Saponi continued to live in and around Brunswick Co which explains why Eleanor resided there.

Entrance to the Fort Christanna site Photo credit: Tonya Evans Beatty
Entrance to the Fort Christanna site
Photo credit: Tonya Evans Beatty
This panel at the Fort Christanna site explains the original layout of the fort. Photo credit: Tonya Evans Beatty
This panel at the Fort Christanna site explains the original layout of the fort.
Photo credit: Tonya Evans Beatty
This panel at the Fort Christanna site discusses the nearby location of the Saponi village called Junkatapurse. After the fort was closed Saponi people continued to reside in the area and both sides of the state border. Eleanor Brandon was likely one of those Saponi who remained in Brunswick Co. Photo credit: Tonya Evans Beatty
This panel at the Fort Christanna site discusses the nearby location of the Saponi village called Junkatapurse. After the fort was closed Saponi people continued to reside in the area and both sides of the state border. Eleanor Brandon was likely one of those Saponi who remained in Brunswick Co.
Photo credit: Tonya Evans Beatty

Viney Brandon (1754-1818)

Viney Brandon was a daughter of Eleanor Brandon and resided in Mecklenburg Co, VA. She was the “wife” of a white man named Thomas Dison. Because of laws against interracial marriage, they could not legally marry and so on 14 March 1791, they were presented to the court for living in “adultery”.

Viney continued to live in Mecklenburg Co, VA where she was a land owner and appears on the tax lists until her death in 1818. She left a will which named her children. Because she was not legally married to Thomas Dison, their children alternated between the Brandon and Dison (also spelled Dyson) surnames. Most of Viney Brandon’s  children and descendants remained in Mecklenburg Co or on the North Carolina side of the state border. They mostly intermarried with other known “free colored”/Native American families in the area such as Goins, Chavis, Howell. etc. There was one son named William Brandon Dison (1777-1845) who relocated out to Wilkes and Surry Cos, NC. Though he was “mixed race”, after he moved to Western NC, he and his children were most commonly recorded as “white”.

From left to right siblings: Susannah Dyson b. 1812 (with white shawl), Moses Dyson b. 1810 (wearing dark hat next to Susannah), and Solomon Dyson b. 1817 (standing right behind the donkey). They are direct descendants of Eleanor Branham/Brandon b. 1728. Their father was William Brandon Dyson and their grandmother was Viney Brandon. The family moved from Mecklenburg Co, VA out to western North Carolina (Wilkes, Caldwell, Burke Cos). This photo was taken when Moses Dyson was leaving for Tennessee. Source: Jerry Dagenhart
From left to right siblings: Susannah Dyson b. 1812 (with white shawl), Moses Dyson b. 1810 (wearing dark hat next to Susannah), and Solomon Dyson b. 1817 (standing right behind the donkey). They are direct descendants of Eleanor Branham/Brandon b. 1728. Their father was William Brandon Dyson who was the son of Viney Brandon and a white man named Thomas Dyson. The family moved from Mecklenburg Co, VA out to western North Carolina (Wilkes and Burke Cos). This photo was taken when Moses Dyson was leaving for Tennessee.
Source: Jerry Dagenhart
Andrew Jackson Dyson Source: Jerry Dagenhart
Andrew Jackson Dyson b. 1818. He was a brother to the above listed Dyson siblings. His father was William Brandon Dyson who was the son of Viney Brandon and a white man named Thomas Dyson.
Source: Jerry Dagenhart

Thomas Brandon (1746-1834)

As discussed above, Thomas Brandon was bound out in Brunswick Co in 1753 and 1755 to an unnamed person. Heinegg suggests he was born around 1746 and that is the date I will use for consistency but it’s possible he was a few years younger. Thomas Brandon was also my 5th great-grandfather.

On 12 May 1763, Thomas Brandon was bound out again in neighboring Lunenburg Co, VA to Hutchins Burton. And according to the tax lists in 1764 for St. James Parish in Lunenburg Co, Thomas Brandon was a tithable in Hutchin Burton’s household. Very noteworthy is that Robert Corn (1745-1816) was also listed as a tithable in Hutchin Burton’s household in 1764. Robert Corn later moved to North Carolina and some of his descendants are the Corn (now more commonly known as “Cohen”) family of the state recognized Occaneechi Band of the Saponi Nation in Orange/Alamance Cos, NC.

So this begs the question, who was Hutchins Burton? Hutchins Burton (1722-1767) was the son of Nowell Burton and Judith Allen and looks to have belonged to a prominent, slave-owning family. You can find additional well researched information about the Burton family here. I wonder if there was a connection between his family and the Saponi people.

Thomas Brandon was mistreated by Hutchins Burton and complained to the courts to be freed from his indenture. And on 13 Jul 1764 Thomas Brandon was bound to Jacob Chavis (1736-1808). Jacob Chavis was the husband of Elizabeth Evans (1745-1814) which is probably why on 3 January 1771, Thomas Brandon married Elizabeth Evans’ sister Margaret Evans (b. 1753). Elizabeth and Margaret Evans were the children of Thomas Evans (1723-1788) and his unnamed Walden wife. I previously discussed Thomas Evans in this blog post.

We learn from his 1833 pension application (W.4643) that Thomas Brandon was a soldier in the Revolutionary War. Thomas lived in Mecklenburg Co until his death in 1834 and his widow Margaret (Evans/Walden) Brandon received a widow’s pension. In Margaret’s application, she provided a family register which listed the names and ages of her children. This specificity of this information is very impressive and rare for its time, so this is a valuable source for reseachers.

A page from Thomas Brandon's Revolutionary War pension application which lists the names and birth dates of his children. Source: The National Archives
A page from Thomas Brandon’s Revolutionary War pension application which lists the names and exact birth dates of his children.
Source: The National Archives

Most of their children remained in Mecklenburg Co, VA where the Occaneechi-Saponi of Virginia community is located. Some later relocated to Ohio where the Saponi Nation of Ohio and the Midwest Saponi Nation are.

So the children of Thomas Brandon and Margaret Evans/Walden were:

1. Nancy Brandon (b. 1771) married Frederick Graves

2. Agnes Brandon (b. 1773)

3. Walden Brandon (b. 1775) – note that his first name “Walden” probably came from his mother Margaret’s Walden heritage.

4. Susan “Suckey” Brandon (b. 1777) married Freeman Howell. These are my 4th great-grandparents and they moved from Mecklenburg Co, VA to Granville Co, NC.

5. Edward Brandon (b. 1779) married Elizabeth Chavis

6. Elizabeth Brandon (b. 1782) married Archer Stewart

7. Thomas Brandon Jr (b. 1786) married Sarah Chavis

8. Margaret Brandon (b. 1790) married John Garnes

9. John Brandon (b. 1792)

10. Jesse Brandon (b. 1796) married Parthena Drew

Elisha Pettiford (1875 - after 1940). Elisha Pettiford (1875 - after 1940). Elisha was the son of Arabella Brandon and Chesley Pettiford. Arabella Brandon was the daughter of Jesse Brandon and Parthena Drew. And Jesse Brandon was a son of Viney Brandon and a white man named Thomas Dison. Elisha's family relocated to Ohio in the 1860s. Source: Ancestry, Username:dl1952
Elisha Pettiford (1875 – after 1940). Elisha was the son of Arabella Brandon and Chesley Pettiford. Arabella Brandon was the daughter of Jesse Brandon and Parthena Drew. And Jesse Brandon was a son of Thomas Brandon and Margaret Evans/Walden. Elisha’s family relocated to Ohio in the 1860s.
Source: Ancestry, Username:dl1952
Arminta Evangeline Pettiford (1857-1934). She was the daughter of Arabella Brandon and Chesley Pettiford. Arabella Brandon was the daughter of Jesse Brandon and Parthena Drew. And Jesse Brandon was a son of Thomas Brandon and Margaret Evans/Walden. Arabella's family relocated to Ohio. Source: Ancestry, Username: sej1sej
Arminta Evangeline Pettiford (1857-1934). She was the daughter of Arabella Brandon and Chesley Pettiford. Arabella Brandon was the daughter of Jesse Brandon and Parthena Drew. And Jesse Brandon was a son of Thomas Brandon and Margaret Evans/Walden. Arabella’s family relocated to Ohio.
Source: Ancestry, Username: sej1sej

Mary/Molly Brandon b. 1744

This brings us to Eleanor Brandon’s daughter Mary/Molly Brandon who is the primary progenitor of the Brandons in Granville Co. She was called both “Mary” and “Molly” in the records and for the sake of clarity I will refer to her as Mary Brandon.

Like her siblings, Mary Brandon was bound out in 1753 and 1755 in Brunswick Co, VA. She was living in neighboring Mecklenburg Co, VA when her son Rhode Brandon (1762-1811) was bound out on 11 Aug 1766. There are no additional records for Mary Brandon, so I’m unsure who fathered her children or what became of her. So we will move onto Mary Brandon’s descendants.


Rhode Brandon (1762-1811)

Rhode Brandon was a son of Mary Brandon and he was initially bound out to a white man named Isaac Holmes on 11 Aug 1766 in Mecklenburg Co, VA. Isaac Holmes (1727-1772) was married to Lucy Ballard and when Isaac Holmes died in 1772, Rhode Brandon was bound out to Isaac Holmes’ brother-in-law John Ballard Jr. Rhode Brandon continued to live in Mecklenburg Co until his death in about 1811. His wife’s name was Elizabeth but her maiden name is unknown. Elizabeth may have been a Stewart because after Rhode Brandon’s death, she purchased land in Mecklenburg Co from James Stewart (b. 1734) that adjoined William Stewart’s (b. 1723) property. The Stewarts were another Saponi family that lived in the area, intermarried with the Brandons, and some family members also moved into Granville Co. This same William Stewart (b. 1723) was bound out to Indian trader Col. William Eaton. Col. Eaton had a close relationship to the Saponi Indians and would later move to Granville Co where the Saponi lived next to his land. See my previous blog posts about Col. William Eaton here and here.

Rhode and Elizabeth Brandon had the following children:

1. *Charles Brandon b. 1787

2. *Burwell Brandon b. 1789

3. Elizabeth Brandon b. 1791

4. Peter Brandon b. 1784

5. George Brandon

6. *Mary Brandon b. 1790 married Robert Mayo 31 Dec 1811 in Mecklenburg Co, VA

7. Hannah Brandon

*Charles Brandon, Mary Brandon, and Burwell Brandon relocated next door to Granville Co, NC. Mary Brandon’s children carried the Mayo surname and despite what Paul Heinegg says about her and Robert Mayo separating by 1839, I have not found that to be the case. They are clearly listed together in the 1850 census in Granville Co with their children. My next sections will focus on Charles Brandon and Burwell Brandon as they are the ones who primarily carried the Brandon surname into Granville Co.

Robert Mayo and his wife Mary brandon did not separate by 1839. They are shown in the 1850 census in the Oxford district of Granvile Co, residing in the household of their son Eldridge Mayo. Eldridge was married to Sally Harris (sister of my 3rd great-grandmother Jane Harris). Source: Year: 1850; Census Place: Oxford, Granville, North Carolina; Roll: M432_631; Page: 106B; Image: 212
Mary (Brandon) Mayo and her husband Robert Mayo did not separate by 1839. They are shown in the 1850 census in the Oxford district of Granvile Co, residing in the household of their son Eldridge Mayo. Eldridge was married to Sally Harris (sister of my 3rd great-grandmother Jane Harris).
Source: Year: 1850; Census Place: Oxford, Granville, North Carolina; Roll: M432_631; Page: 106B; Image: 212

Charles Brandon b. 1787

Charles Brandon is well documented as a son of Rhode and Elizabeth Brandon because he was a tithable in their Mecklenburg Co, VA household. By 1820, Charles Brandon moved to the Abrams Plains district of Granville Co, NC where he is found in the census, head of a household of 6 “free colored” individuals, including: 1 male under 14, 1 male 26-45, 2 females 14-26, and 1 female over 45. This household information suggests that Charles Brandon was married and had at least one son and two daughters. I say at least because it’s quite possible some of his children may have been bound out as apprentices in white households (a common occurrence for the Brandons in Mecklenburg Co, VA).

Charles Brandon was enumerated in the Abrams Plains District of Granville Co in 1820. Source: 1820 U S Census; Census Place: Granville, North Carolina; Page: 23; NARA Roll: M33_85; Image: 23
Charles Brandon was enumerated in the Abrams
Plains District of Granville Co in 1820.
Source: 1820 U S Census; Census Place: Granville, North Carolina; Page: 23; NARA Roll: M33_85; Image: 23

I know very little about Charles Brandon because that is the last time he appears in the census. I do not have a marriage record associated with him either so I cannot verify the identity of his wife. However it certainly appears that Charles Brandon died sometime after 1820, and so we may find his children in the apprenticeship records in Granville Co.

On 7 Feb 1831 in Granville Co, a Mary Brandon and a Susannah Brandon were bound out to John Bowen and Chesley Daniel, respectively. The fact that both girls were bound out on the same date is good evidence that they were sisters. Their parents were not named in the apprenticeship records but looking at the date of when they were bound out suggests they were orphans of Charles Brandon. And Granville County court minutes reveal that Mary and Suannah were the orphans of Charles Brandon, deceased (h/t to researcher Warren Milteer). I don’t know what happened to Mary Brandon. Susannah Brandon on the other hand married William Pettiford (son of Collins Pettiford and Polly Chavis) of the very large “free colored”/Native American Pettiford family on 3 Jan 1846. Also, Susannah Brandon and her husband resided in the Abrams Plains district, the same district that Charles Brandon formerly resided in.

Apprenticeship record for Susannah Brandon shows that she was bound out to Chesley Daniel on 7 Feb 1831. Source: North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998
Apprenticeship record for Susannah Brandon shows that she was bound out to Chesley Daniel on 7 Feb 1831.
Source: North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998
The apprenticeship record for Mary Brandon shows that she bound out to John Bowen on 7 Feb 1831. Source: North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998
Apprenticeship record for Mary Brandon shows that she bound out to John Bowen on 7 Feb 1831.
Source: North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998

What is also worth pointing out is the name of Chesley Daniel. This Chesley Daniel may have had a close relationship to Charles Brandon because there was a Chesley Brandon b. 1812 who appears in the Granville Co records that I believe to be a son of Charles Brandon. It was not uncommon for “free colored”/Native American families to name their children after “friendly whites”. I cannot locate an earlier Chesley in the Brandon family, so Chesley Daniel may be the reason why the Chesley name was passed down in the Brandon family. (Also note there was a Chesley Bass b. 1815 of Granville’s Native community).

Below is a list of probable children of Charles Brandon and they all lived in and intermarried with members of Granville’s Native community. If I find additional documents to verify or dispute these connections, I will update:

1. Chesley Brandon b. 1812. Married Susan Anderson 8 Oct 1840 in Granville Co, with Collins Pettiford as the bondsman. This is the same Collins Pettiford who was the father-in-law of Chesley’s sister Susannah Brandon.

2. Jane Brandon b. 1815. Married Martin Cousins 26 March 1845 in Granville Co, with Evans Pettiford as the bondsman. Evans Pettiford was the husband of Jane’s sister Martha Brandon.

3. Susan “Susannah” Brandon b. 1819. Married William Pettiford 3 Jan 1846 in Granville Co, with Sterling Chavis as the bondsman. Susannah was called an orphan of Charles Brandon when she bound out in 1831 to Chesley Daniel and lived in the same part of Granville Co as her father Charles Brandon.

4. Martha Brandon b. 1821. Married Evans Pettiford 30 Sep 1840 in Granville Co, with Abram Plenty as the bondsman. Evans Pettiford was the bondsman for the marriage of Martha’s sister Jane Brandon.

5. Mary Brandon b. 1823. She was bound out on the same date as her sister Susannah Brandon in 1831 to John Bowen when she was called an or[han of Charles Brandon. No additional records of her after she was bound out.

If we go back and look at the census information for Charles Brandon’s household in 1820, we know that he had at least three children (1 son and 2 daughters) born before 1820. Those children could be Chesley, Jane, and Susannah (Jane and Susannah may have been mistakenly listed a bit older).

William Pettiford (1852-1932) was the son of Sussanah Brandon and William Pettiford Sr. He lived in Granville's Native community. Source: Ancestry, Username: t4phillips
William Pettiford (1852-1932) was the son of Susannah Brandon and William Pettiford Sr. He lived in Granville’s Native community.
Source: Ancestry, Username: t4phillips

Burwell Brandon b. 1785

Burwell Brandon was born in Mecklenburg Co, VA where he was found on the tax lists in the household of his father Rhode Brandon. He next appears in the 1820 census in neighboring Charlotte Co, VA, head of a household of one male (himself). This is a very important detail because it strongly implies that Burwell Brandon was not married nor had children before 1820 unless they were bound out.

Burwell Brandon was enumerated in the 1820 census in Charlotte Co, VA. He was the head of a household that only included himself. Source: 1820 U S Census; Census Place: Charlotte, Virginia; Page: 33; NARA Roll: M33_136; Image: 46
Burwell Brandon was enumerated in the 1820 census in Charlotte Co, VA. He was the head of a household that only included himself.
Source: 1820 U S Census; Census Place: Charlotte, Virginia; Page: 33; NARA Roll: M33_136; Image: 46

I have not located Burwell Brandon in the 1830 census, so I’m unsure the exact year he moved to Granville Co. However other closely interrelated Saponi families in the Mecklenburg Co area such as the Guy, Howell, Parker, Cousins, and Chavis families moved into Granville Co in the 1820s.

In the 1840 census in Granville Co, Burwell Brandon is listed as the head of household of 5 “free people of color”, and by looking at their ages they were presumably his wife, 2 sons, and 1 daughter.

So who was Burwell Brandon’s wife? There are some family trees on Ancestry that list Burwell’s wife as Lucy Young but I have found no evidence to support this. I believe these family trees are confusing a woman named Lucy Young who lived in and never left Charlotte Co; she appears in the 1810, 1820, 1830 and 1840 censuses for Charlotte Co. According to the “Free Negro Register” of Charlotte Co, this Lucy Young along with other Youngs were emancipated slaves of an Edward Almond. This Lucy Young was 57 years of age in 1822 when she is listed in the “Free Negro” register of Charlotte Co, making her born around 1765, too old to be Burwell’s wife.

According to the death certificate of Burwell Brandon’s youngest son Richard Brandon (1840-1916), Burwell’s wife was “Lucy Stoye”. I have not come across this surname before and I’m pretty confident that “Stoye” was a misspelling of “Stow”. I found several white Stow (also spelled “Stoe”) households in Charlotte and adjacent counties in the early 1800s. As we know Burwell Brandon resided in Mecklenburg and Charlotte Cos before coming to Granville Co. And Virginia is listed as Lucy Brandon’s birthplace in the 1850 census record. It could be that Lucy was a member of the white Stow family or even an emancipated slave of the Stow family. Either scenario may explain why I have not been able to find a marriage record for Burwell Brandon.

The death certificate for Burwell and Lucy Brandon's youngest son Richard Brandon, lists Lucy's maiden name as
The death certificate for Burwell and Lucy Brandon’s youngest son Richard Brandon (1840-1916), lists Lucy’s maiden name as “Lucy Stoye”. I believe this is a misspelling of the Stow/Stoe family.
Source: North Carolina State Board of Health, Bureau of Vital Statistics. North Carolina Death Certificates. Microfilm S.123. Rolls 19-242, 280, 313-682, 1040-1297. North Carolina State Archives, Raleigh, North Carolina.

In the 1850 census, Burwell Brandon appears in the Tabbs Creek district of Granville Co with his wife Lucy Brandon, daughter Betsy Brandon, sons Humbleston “Amos” Brandon and Richard Brandon, and grandchildren Hilliard “Hettie” Brandon and Hayoshe “Osh” Brandon. These grandchildren were the children of Burwell’s daughter Betsy Brandon.

Burwell Brandon and his family were enumerated in the 1850 census for the Tabbs Creek District of Granville Co. Source: Year: 1850; Census Place: Tabscreek, Granville, North Carolina; Roll: M432_631; Page: 82B; Image: 166
Burwell Brandon and his family were enumerated in the 1850 census for the Tabbs Creek District of Granville Co.
Source: Year: 1850; Census Place: Tabscreek, Granville, North Carolina; Roll: M432_631; Page: 82B; Image: 166

We learn from the Granville Co apprenticeship records that a few years prior in 1847, the court had ordered that Burwell’s sons Humbleston Brandon and Richard Brandon to be bound out. The sons were not specifically named but it is clear the court order was referring to Humbleston and Richard Brandon. But it appears the court never took action since Humbleston and Richard were living with their father in 1850.

Court order in Granville Co in 1847 recommended that Burwell Brandon's sons (Humbleston and Richard) be bound out. However it appears this never happened because they are listed in Burwell's household in 1850. Source: North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998
Court order in Granville Co in 1847 recommended that Burwell Brandon’s sons (Humbleston and Richard) be bound out. However it appears this never happened because they are listed in Burwell’s household in 1850.
Source: North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998

I have not located Burwell Brandon in the 1860 census. In 1870, he was living in Fishing Creek township in Granville Co, and enumerated again with his wife Lucy Brandon. This was the last time Burwell and his wife Lucy appear in the census, so they likely died shortly afterwards.

The documented children of Burwell and Lucy Brandon were:

1. Betsy Brandon (b. 1831). She was not married and had a number of children whom I will discuss in the next section.

2. Humbleston “Amos” Brandon (b. 1834). He was first married to Onie Peace and second married to Addie (I don’t know her maiden name). He had numerous children with both women and continued living in the Native community in Granville/Vance Co in Fishing Creek/Kittrell townships.

3. Richard Brandon (1840-1916) . He was married to a woman named Eliza (not sure of her maiden name) but it appears they never had children. He remained in the Native community in Granville Co in Fishing Creek township.

There are two additional Brandon children of Burwell’s that were much older than than the ones discussed above and so they likely had a different mother.  Mahalia Brandon (b. 1805) was the wife of Henry Parker (b. 1810) who was from the Saponi Indian Parker family that I discussed in this previous blog post. Their descendants remained in Granville’s Native community. Second there is Giles Brandon (1813-1909) who was the husband of Sallie Ann Evans 1827-1914 (daughter of Thomas Evans and Sallie Bass) of the Native American Evans and Bass families. Interestingly, Mahalia Brandon’s husband Henry Parker was the bondsman for the marriage of Giles Brandon and Sallie Ann Evans, which is a strong indicator that Mahalia Brandon and Giles Brandon were siblings. Furthermore, Mahalia Brandon had a son named Giles Parker (b. 1835), likely named after her brother Giles Brandon. Giles Brandon eventually left Granville Co for Ohio where his descendants are found among the Saponi Nation of Ohio and the Midwest Saponi Nation.

Several of Mahalia (Brandon) Parker’s children listed their grandfather as Burwell Brandon when they registered to vote in 1902 under the “grandfather clause” (h/t to researcher Warren Milteer). So from those voting records, we know Burwell Brandon had to be the father of Mahalia and Giles Brandon. But their mother could not have been Lucy Stow/Stoe (b. 1795) because she was too young to be the mother of Mahalia Brandon (b.1805). As I mentioned earlier, Burwell Brandon in the 1820 census was in a household by himself, so perhaps his first unknown wife had died and his children were bound out. So you can see, there are some unresolved questions with identifying the mother of Mahalia and Giles Brandon. I would urge any researchers and descendants of this family to be aware of these issues.


Betsy Brandon b. 1831

In this final section, I’m going to take some time to discuss Betsy Brandon’s children. Because she was not married, I have seen some confusion about who fathered her children.

Betsy is well documented as a daughter of Burwell and Lucy Brandon and appears in their household in the 1850 census. Betsy’s oldest children were fathered by Hilliard Evans b. 1815 (son of Thomas Evans and Sallie Bass) of the Native American Evans and Bass families that I previously blogged about. I have verified this a few ways. The marriage record for Betsy’s oldest son Hayoshe “Osh” Brandon to Parthenia Eaton, recorded on 23 Dec 1868 in Granville Co, lists his father as Hilliard Evans. Betsy’s oldest daughter was named Hilliard “Hettie” Brandon, obviously named after her father. The marriage records for Betsy’s next three children: Crutch Brandon, Pantheyer Brandon and Amanda Brandon do not list their father’s name. But given that they are quite close in age to Hayoshe and Hilliard Brandon, Hilliard Evans was most likely their father. It also worth mentioning that Hilliard Evans was the brother of Sallie Ann Evans who married Giles Brandon.

The marriage record for Hayoshe
The marriage record for Hayoshe “Osh” Brandon to Parthenia Eaton on 23 Dec 1868 lists his father as “Hilliard Evans
Source: Ancestry.com. North Carolina, Marriage Records, 1741-2011 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2015.
Hilliard Evans on 24 Jun 1855 married Louisa Mitchell in Wake Co and relocated to Ohio, so we know he likely did not father any additional children with Betsy Brandon after 1855.

I cannot find Betsy Brandon and her children in the 1860 census, which makes establishing their ages a bit difficult. She does appear again in the 1870 and 1880 censuses in Fishing Creek township in Granville Co with additional children. The next clue about who fathered Betsy Brandon’s next set of children comes from the death certificate of her son Peyton Brandon (1861-1925). His death certificate lists his father as William “Billie” Peace of Granville Co. Another clue comes from the death certificate for Betsy’s daughter Maranda Brandon (1868-1962), where her father is listed as “Billie Brandon”. There was no Billie Brandon but I believe this was also in reference to William “Billie” Peace.

Peyton Brandon's death record lists his father as
Peyton Brandon’s death record lists his father as “Billie Peace
Source: North Carolina State Board of Health, Bureau of Vital Statistics. North Carolina Death Certificates. Microfilm S.123. Rolls 19-242, 280, 313-682, 1040-1297. North Carolina State Archives, Raleigh, North Carolina.

So who was William “Billie” Peace? I found two William Peaces who were both the appropriate age to father children with Betsy Brandon, were never married and lived in close proximity to her. Both men were also white. One was William L Peace (son of Pleasant Peace and Peggy Reed) who looks to have been a prosperous slave owner. The other was William R Peace (son of John Peace and Frances Reed) who is consistently listed in the census as “deaf & dumb”, so I doubt that he is the correct one. William Peace being white is also likely why Betsy Brandon never was able to marry him. Additional research is needed to verify that I have identified the correct William Peace.

Here is the list of Betsy Brandon’s children who all lived in the Native community. Most intermarried with other Native American families:

Fathered by Hilliard Evans:

1. Hilliard “Hettie” Brandon b. 1847. Married to Samuel Harris

2. Hayoshe “Osh” Brandon 1848-1923. Married first to Parthenia Eaton and second to Sarah Williams.

3. Pantheyer Brandon 1851-1934. Married to Junius Thomas Howell

4. Crutch Brandon b. 1853. Married to Lucy Ann Parker.

5. Amanda Brandon 1854-1922. Married to Henry Howell.

Fathered by William “Billie” Peace:

6. Admond Brandon 1858-1948. Married to Delia Braswell

7. Peyton Brandon 1861-1925. Married to Beatrice (maiden name not known).

8. William Brandon 1864-1932. Married first to Florence Braswell and second to Etta Jones.

9. Walter Brandon 1865-1939. Never married.

10. Maranda Brandon 1868-1962. Married to Matthew Parker.

11. Delia Brandon 1869-1958. Married to Ben Howell.

Pantheyer Brandon (1851-1934). She was the daughter of Hilliard Evans and Betsy Brandon and a lifelong resident of Fishing Creek township in Granville County. She comes from the same Branham family in Plecker's letter. Source: Ancestry, Username: rthomas1973
Pantheyer Brandon (1851-1934). She was the daughter of Betsy Brandon and Hilliard Evans and a lifelong resident of Fishing Creek township in Granville County. She was married to Junius Thomas Howell.
Source: Ancestry, Username: rthomas1973
Admond Brandon (1858-1948) was the son of Betsy Brandon and William
Admond Brandon (1858-1948) was the son of Betsy Brandon and William “Billie” Peace. He was a lifelong resident of Fishing Creek and Kittrell townships.
Source: http://www.chileshomepage.com/Brown/ID/Brown.htm
Hayoshe
Hayoshe “Osh” Brandon (1848-1923) was the son of Betsy Brandon and Hilliard Evans. He was a lifelong resident of Fishing Creek and Kittrell townships.
Source: http://www.chileshomepage.com/Brown/ID/Brown.htm
Zonius Brandon (1896-1970) was the son of Hayoshe Brandon and Sarah Williams and he was the grandson of Betsy Brandon and Hiliard Evans. Zonius spent most of his life in Fishing Creek and Kittrell and later moved up to Boston, MA. Source: http://www.chileshomepage.com/Brown/ID/Brown.htm
Zonius Brandon (1896-1970) was the son of Hayoshe Brandon and Sarah Williams and he was the grandson of Betsy Brandon and Hiliard Evans. Zonius spent most of his life in Fishing Creek and Kittrell and later moved up to Boston, MA.
Source: http://www.chileshomepage.com/Brown/ID/Brown.htm
Willie Brandon (1904-1980) was the daugjhter of Hayoshe Brandon and Sarah Williams. She was a lifelong resident of Fishing Creek and Kittrell. Source: http://www.chileshomepage.com/Brown/ID/Brown.htm
 Willie Brandon (1904-1980) was the daughter of Hayoshe Brandon and Sarah Williams. She was a lifelong resident of Fishing Creek and Kittrell.
Source: http://www.chileshomepage.com/Brown/ID/Brown.htm